. Mozart's next three operas were based on librettos by Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749-1838; see HWM Figure 23.11). All were Italian comic operas. The Marriage of Figaro (1786) Don Giovanni (Don Juan, 1787) Cos fan tutte (Thus Do All Women, 1790) Da Ponte and Mozart gave greater depth to the characters. All three librettos had comic and serious characters. They also had characters in between serious and comic, which Mozart called mezzo carattere (middle character). Mozart's ensembles allowed characters to express contrasting emotions at the same time. Mozart's orchestration, particularly his use of winds, helped define the characters and situations. . Don Giovanni The opera premiered in Prague. Da Ponte and Mozart took the legendary character of Don Juan seriously as a rebel against authority. The opera mixes opera seria characters and opera buffa characters. All character types are combined in the brilliant dance music in the finale of Act I. The opening scene of Don Giovanni (NAWM 117) Leporello complains in an opera-buffa style with an ABCBB' form. Donna Anna and Don Giovanni sing in a dramatic opera seria style, while Leporello frets in a buffa style; the form is ABB. The ensuing duel ends in a death, a shocking scene in a comic opera. A powerful trio in F minor laments the turn of events. At the end, Don Giovanni and Leporello revert to comic banter. Donna Elvira's aria Ah fuggi il traditor (see HWM Example 23.11) Her aria depicts herself as a tragic character. The aria is an out-of-date style, making her sound insincere. . Magic Flute This Singspiel was composed in the last year of his life, along with the opera seria La clemenza di Tito (The Mercy of Titus). The story contains symbolism, largely drawn from the teachings and ceremonies of Freemasonry. Mozart interweaves a wide variety of vocal styles. . Church Music
. His early sacred music is not considered to be among his major works. . The masses reflect the current symphonic-operatic idiom with standard fugal sections. . The Requiem, K. 626 The work was commissioned by Count Walsegg in 1791. Unfinished at Mozart's death, it was completed by his pupil, Franz Xaver (1766- 1803).
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