Aircraft fire hazards flammable hazardous and fire

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Aircraft Fire Hazards Flammable, hazardous, and fire accelerating materials carried on aircraft are of major concern e.g. Aviation Gasoline (AVGAS), jet fuels (JP-4, JP-5, and JP-8), engine oils, oxygen systems, and hydraulic fluids constitute problems in aircraft fire-fighting. Under aircraft crash impact conditions where fuel-air mixtures or mists are created, all fuels are easily ignited. Aviation Gasoline (AVGAS) The flash point (by closed cup method at sea level) of AVGAS is – 50°F (–46°C). The rate of flame spread has also been calculated to be between 700 and 800 feet per minute. JP-4 Fuel JP-4 jet fuel is a blend of gasoline and kerosene and has a flash point from –10°F (–23°C). The rate of flame spread has also been calculated to be between 700 and 800 feet per minute. (c) UPES, Not for Reproduction/ Sale
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Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Aviation Safety & Security Management JP-5 Fuel JP-5 fuel is a kerosene grade with a flash point of 140°F (60°C). The rate of flame spread has been calculated to be in the order of 100 feet per minute. General Hazards Not every crash results in fire. The responsibility of the crash fire fighter does not end when fire fails to occur. Serious actual and potential fire hazards may have been created, which must be eliminated or minimized without delay. The greater the damage to the aircraft, the greater the possibility of fuel spillage is. A spark or a hot engine part could ignite fuel vapours and set off a full-fledged fire. All precautions must be taken all to prevent accidental ignition. Fuel Tanks When an aircraft crashes, the impact usually ruptures the fuel lines and fuel tanks. Ordinarily, all the fuel is not liberated at once. There is a source of fuel that is supplying the fire either from the rupture in the tank or from the loosened and ruptured fuel lines in the accessory section of the engine. The control of the fire around the fuselage section under these conditions presents a very complex problem. The top portion of the tank is voider of liquid than any other section of the tank. Because of the restraining cushion of the liquid itself, the explosive force will be directed upward instead of downward or on a horizontal plane. Fuel loads can vary from 100 Litres in small aircraft to approximately two Lakhs Litres or more in large jet aircraft. Fuel tanks are installed in a variety of places within the aircraft structural framework or as a built-in part of the wing. There is so little difference in the heat of combustion of the various aircraft hydrocarbon fuels that the severity after ignition would be of no significance from the "fire safety" point of view. The fire-fighting and control measures are the same for the entire group of aviation hydrocarbon fuels. (c) UPES, Not for Reproduction/ Sale
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UNIT 7: Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Services Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Oxygen Systems Oxygen systems on aircraft can present hazardous conditions to fire fighters during an emergency. Liquid oxygen is a light blue liquid that flows like water and is extremely cold. It boils into
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  • Fall '19
  • Instrument approach, Runway, Rajiv, Aviation Safety & Security Management

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