Skinner discovered that by rewarding the rat with food on each trial the rate

Skinner discovered that by rewarding the rat with

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Skinner discovered that by rewarding the rat with food, on each trial, the rate of presses increased dramatically. The rat learned the instrumental response by being reinforced. Skinner conducted similar experiment on pigeons also. He experimented on dogs also; negative reinforcement and avoidance behaviour on was studied on dogs. Basic Components of Operant Conditioning Operant An operant is a response that has some effect on the world. It is a response that operates on the environment. Reinforcer A reinforcer increases the probability that an operant behaviour will occur again. The term reward is used for reinforcement also. But reward is limited to positive occurrences. Reward differs from a reinforcer, because reinforcer can be positive or negative. Both reinforcer and reward increase the probability that a preceding response will occur again. The term reinforcer and reinforcement are defined empirically, in terms of their effect on changing the probability of a reponse. Reinforcer is any event that increases the behaviour it follows A reinforcer may be a tangible reward. It may be praise or attention. It may even be a preferred activity. Skinner gave a precise meaning to rewards. H used the term reinforcement. Researchers and animal trainers gradual shape the complex behaviour with successive rewards. Parents may rewards to shape good table manners by praising. Skinner classified two basic kinds of reinforcement; Positive and Negative reinforcement. Actually positive and negative reinforcers have the same effect, they strengthen behaviour. As Skinner stressed that a behaviour can be conditioned to occur more frequently if it is reinforced and its frequency will decline if reinforcement is withheld. Events which are found to be reinforcing are of two sorts. Some reinforcements consists in presenting stimuli of
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adding something to the situation e.g. food, water, etc. are positive reinforcement. Other consist of removing something, from the situation e.g. a loud noise, very bright light, extreme cold or heat or electric chock is negative reinforcement. Positive Reinforcement It strengthens a response by presenting a positive stimulus after a response. Food is a positive reinforcer for animals; attention, approval and money are positive reinforcers for most people. Positive means onset, presenting a stimulus to strengthen the behaviour. Negative Reinforcement Negative means, offset, withdrawing a stimulus. Negative reinforcer is stimulus not received after a response, that increases the probability of that response occurring. The condition of not receiving an aversive stimulus is called negative reinforcement. It strengthens a response by reducing or removing an unpleasant stimulus. Reduce or switch off the electric shock is rewarding for an animal, which is actually a negative reinforcement. Primary and Secondary Reinforcement Primary reinforcement is an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as food, drink, shelter.
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