Fl ame retardant agents which have been widely used

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fl ame-retardant agents which have been widely used in fl ame-retardant textiles. The nanoparticles may act as barrier to limit the heat, fuel, and oxygen. Flame retardancy can also be achieved with application of nanostructures such as nanoparticles of metals, metal oxides, and nanocomposites with permanent effect on textiles. Bourbigot et al. reported the synthesis of polyamide-6/clay nanocomposite using melt blending and investigated Θ < 90 Hydrophilic 90 < Θ < 150 Hydrophobic Θ > 150 Superhydrophobic ( Θ ) ( Θ ) ( Θ ) Fig. 6 Hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces 110 Shahid-ul-Islam et al.
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its fl ammability. The produced nanocomposite polyamide-6/clay was found to impart permanent effect at relatively low cost and without altering basic properties of textiles (Bourbigot et al. 2002 ). In another investigation conducted by Federico Carosio et al. 2011 it was shown that silica nanoparticles could be applied on textile by layer-by-layer assembly to increase time to ignition and decreased heat release rate peak of fabric. 6 Current Challenges and Perspectives The customers demand for textiles with multifunctional properties has motivated researchers to introduce nanotechnology into textile modi fi cation applications. As already discussed, nanoparticles are materials in 1 100 nm size range having high surface area-to-volume ratio. Nanotechnology revolutionized the textile sector over the past few decades (Montazer et al. 2013; Dastjerdi and Montazer 2010 ). Many textile fi bers such as wool, cotton, silk, and synthetic fi bers such as polyester and nylon are widely used in many advanced application fi elds. It is well described in the literature that many nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide can be applied to impart resistance, water repellency, ultraviolet protection, and elec- tromagnetic and infrared functional fi nishing properties to textile materials (Montazer and Pakdel 2011 ). Other nanoparticles have been utilized to induce antibacterial, antifungal, and wrinkle resistance properties to textile surfaces. Nanotechnology modi fi cation provides a new way to impart novel prominent properties to textile surfaces without affecting other bulk properties. Since the textile industries are biggest consumer base, it is expected that nanotechnology would play a major role in its economy. Other than their largest use in apparel market, nanotextiles could fi nd potential use in different application fi elds including hospital textiles, sportswear, military, domestic, and household furnishing (Radetic 2013). It may be noted that though nanotechnology has fascinated textile industries, little attention has been paid to its impact on environment and human health. The release of nanoparticles should be monitored carefully during washing. Several research investigations have been carried out in this area, and it has been established that the forms of nanomaterials released depend upon the way they are incorpo- rated, the characteristics of liquid, pH, and other attributes (Lombi et al. 2014).
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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