Spinal cord occupiers most of the vertebral canal c3

Info icon This preview shows pages 7–9. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
spinal cord occupiers most of the vertebral canal C3, C4, C5 keeps the diaphragm alive S2, S3, S4 keeps the pee pee off the floor S2, S3, S4 keeps the feces off the floor Bruising: irreversible damage Prolonged ischemia and necrosis: lead to permanent damage Release of norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine: released by damage tissue- vasoconstriction Assessment using dermatome map: assessment of movement and sensory response this can determine the degree of damage or recovery Spinal Shock Initial period after an injury; ANS reflexes absent Conduction of impulses cease and recovery depends on amount of bleeding or surgical intervention Inflammation gradually subsides (damage of scar tissues is remove by phagocytosis and scar tissue forms) Reflex activity resumes below level of injury No communication with higher levels or brain Control of reflexes below the level of damage is lost
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Tetraplegia (quadriplegia) : paralysis of all four extremities Paraplegia: paralysis of the lower part of the trunk and legs Ipsilateral paralysis and contralteral loss of pain and temperature sensation: depends on the point of decussation and location Head Injuries May involve skull fractures Hemorrhage and edema Direct injury to the brain tissue Injury may be mild causing minimal bruising to the tissue Can be severe and life-threatening – this severity would be caused by destruction of the brain tissue and massive swelling of the brain Types of head injuries Concussion (minimal brain trauma) Reversible interference with brain function caused by a sudden excessive movement of the brain Results of blow to the head from whiplash Amnesia and headaches may follow Recovery usually within 24 hours without permanent damage Confusion caused by: bruising of the brain tissue, rupture of small blood vessels, and edema A blunt blow to the head has possible residual damage Closed head injury Skull isn’t fractured Brain tissue is injured, and blood vessels are ruptured Extensive damage may occur in head rotation Open head injuries : involve penetration or fractures of the brain Depressed skull fractures : involve displacement of a piece of bone below the level of the skull, compression of the brain tissue, and blood supply often impaired due to pressure of the brain Basilar fractures: occur at the base of the skull and cause a leakage of CSF through ears of nose (may occur when forehead hits windshield) Contrecoup injury : area of the brain contralteral to the site of direct damage is injured, happens when brain bounces off the skull, and may be secondary to acceleration or deceleration injuries Primary brain injuries Direct brain injuries: laceration or compression of brain tissues Rupture or compression of cerebral blood vessels Damage due to rough or irregular inner surface of the skull Secondary brain injuries: result from additional effects of cerebral edema, hemorrhage,
Image of page 8
Image of page 9
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern