also involves listening to customers in an attempt to improve the quality.
TQM was the brainchild of William Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran and Kaoru
Ishikawa beginning in the 1940's.
Of the three, Deming was the most prominent. Total
quality management (TQM) was first applied by corporations in Japan.
Most companies start using TQM in production processes, then expand the system
to encompass purchasing, delivery, customer service and other functions.
used TQM is often applied to manufacturing processes because these processes are
easy to measure and understand. As companies gain experience with TQM, its
application is often expanded to customer related functions such as delivery, billing,
complaints and maintenance.
Critics of TQM propose that the theory’s founders shared a profoundly socialist view
of the corporation as opposed to the capitalist view held by traditional theorists.
places its primary emphasis on the corporation's responsibility to the community,
customers and employees. Responsibility to shareholders and the importance of
making a profit are not emphasized.
W. Edwards Deming
: - continuous improvement – 14 POINTS:
Create constancy of purpose for
improvement of product and
a new philosophy
Cease dependence on mass
end awarding business on price
Improve the system of production
and service constantly
Drive out fear
Break down barriers between
Eliminate slogans, exhortations,
and numerical targets for the
Eliminate numerical quotas or work
remove barriers that prevent
workers from taking pride in their
Institute a vigorous program of
Take action to accomplish the
TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION
which states that job performance is a balance of motivators and hygiene factors.
Motivators such as recognition, achievement, and professional growth result in
exceptional performance, while hygiene factors such as work conditions,
supervision, and pay only keep the employee showing up for work.
According to the Two Factor Theory of Motivation, motivator factors are built into the
job in the form of responsibility, recognition, etc., and lead to exceptional job
These are known as motivator factors. The other factor is hygiene
factors, which result in bare minimum work.
In Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory, hygiene factors are not part of the work
itself and include things such as working conditions, supervision, and pay; they result in
bare minimum work.
The hygiene factors are what keep the employee coming to work,
and are necessary but they do not lead to exceptional performance. Motivator factors
are what cause exceptional work.