CLEP Principles of Management 1

It also involves listening to customers in an attempt

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It also involves listening to customers in an attempt to improve the quality. TQM was the brainchild of William Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran and Kaoru Ishikawa beginning in the 1940's. Of the three, Deming was the most prominent. Total quality management (TQM) was first applied by corporations in Japan. Most companies start using TQM in production processes, then expand the system to encompass purchasing, delivery, customer service and other functions. When first used TQM is often applied to manufacturing processes because these processes are easy to measure and understand. As companies gain experience with TQM, its application is often expanded to customer related functions such as delivery, billing, complaints and maintenance. Critics of TQM propose that the theory’s founders shared a profoundly socialist view of the corporation as opposed to the capitalist view held by traditional theorists. TQM places its primary emphasis on the corporation's responsibility to the community, customers and employees. Responsibility to shareholders and the importance of making a profit are not emphasized. 61. 62. W. Edwards Deming : - continuous improvement – 14 POINTS: 1. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service 2. Adopt a new philosophy 3. Cease dependence on mass inspection 4. end awarding business on price 5. Improve the system of production and service constantly 6. Institute training 7. Institute leadership 8. Drive out fear 9. Break down barriers between departments 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and numerical targets for the workforce 11. Eliminate numerical quotas or work standards 12. remove barriers that prevent workers from taking pride in their workmanship 13. Institute a vigorous program of education 14. Take action to accomplish the transformation 15. 16. 17. TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION , ( MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE theory) which states that job performance is a balance of motivators and hygiene factors. Motivators such as recognition, achievement, and professional growth result in exceptional performance, while hygiene factors such as work conditions, supervision, and pay only keep the employee showing up for work. According to the Two Factor Theory of Motivation, motivator factors are built into the job in the form of responsibility, recognition, etc., and lead to exceptional job performance. These are known as motivator factors. The other factor is hygiene factors, which result in bare minimum work. In Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory, hygiene factors are not part of the work itself and include things such as working conditions, supervision, and pay; they result in bare minimum work. The hygiene factors are what keep the employee coming to work, and are necessary but they do not lead to exceptional performance. Motivator factors are what cause exceptional work. 18.
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It also involves listening to customers in an attempt to...

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