Purpose is to unify all of the germanic states iii

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III. May, 1848 Frankfurt Parliament begins debating a unifying national constitution for all German peoplesA. After 1 yr of debates over monarchy or republic? boundaries, and ethnic make-up a Constitution is finally selectedB. Bigger problem was securing Prussian support for unification1. Smaller German states very supportive of Frankfurt Constitution a. Prussia was not66Mike Hughes, MA SAT/AP Specialist (Phone) 562/743-8624 [email protected]
SIGMAPLSACADEMYQuality Comprehensive College Preparation and Planning 2. Austria quite adamant about opposition to Frankfurt Assemblya. Wants to maintain status quoIV. Assembly leaders elect Frederick William IV as Emperor only to have him reject the proposalA. Frederick William is a divine right ruler, therefore not subject to electoral decisions1. Rejects offer as “Crown from the Gutter”a. Without Prussia any chance of unification is doomed2. Real problem is Austria’s willingness to go to war with Prussia if unification attempteda. Austrian domination of German Bund confirmed with the “Humiliation ofOlmutz”where Prussia forced to reaffirm loyalty to AustriaV. Frankfurt Parliament dissolved without a single accomplishmentGreat Britain and the Victorian CompromiseI. Victorian Age (1837-1901) represents long reign of Queen Victoria, who married cousin Prince AlbertA. Early years of reign associated with ongoing liberal reforms of British Government1. Reform arrangement called the Victorian Compromisea. Political alliance of the middle class and aristocracy1. Excluded working class from political powerII. Middle class gained control of House of CommonsA. aristocracy controls the government, army, and Church of EnglandHighlights of the “Compromise Era”I. Parliamentary Reforms:A. 1832 Reform BillB. Slavery abolished throughout Empire (1833)C. Factory Act of 1831forbids child labor under 9 yrs oldD. New Poor Law (1834) needy and unemployed now able to live in workhousesE. Municipal Reform Law of 1835gives control of the cities to the middle class1. Eliminates “Rotten Boroughs”F. Repeal of the Corn Laws of 1846allowing commons to purchase cheaper products from abroadG. 1849 NavigationActs repealed eliminating last vestiges of mercantilismII. After reforms, workers become disillusioned about limited improvement on their livesA. Begin to make additional demands III. Chartist movementbegins in England in earnestA. Demand is for universal male suffrage1. Idea considered dangerous by elitesB. Chartist movement fails as participants could not agree on employing violence or not1. Disagreement breaks up any momentumEvaluationI. The Revolutions of 1848 began with much promise but they all would end up in defeatA. Problems stemmed from1. Lack of clear planning and organization on part of revolutionariesa. Middle class grew to fear allied working class goals and methods2. Royal armies remained loyal to their respective rulersB. Results not all negative1. Universal suffrage granted in France2. Parliaments established in Prussia and other German states

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