Layer 3 Header Layer 3 Header PPP Header Packet over SONETSDH ATM Cell Header

Layer 3 header layer 3 header ppp header packet over

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Layer 3 Header Layer 3 Header PPP Header (Packet over SONET/SDH) ATM Cell Header HEC HEC Label Label DATA DATA CLP CLP PTI PTI VCI VCI GFC GFC VPI VPI Label Header Label Header MAC Header MAC Header Layer 3 Header Layer 3 Header LAN MAC Label Header 54
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MPLS Encapsulations… A tag can be as small as three bytes, or may be larger depending on the application and on the specific media type and encapsulation method used. Tag information can be carried in a packet in a variety of ways: between the PPP and Network Layer headers; as part of the ATM header as part of the Network Layer header (e.g., using the Flow Label field in IPv6). It is therefore possible to implement tag switching over virtually any media type including point-to-point links multi-access links ATM 55
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Label Header Header= 4 bytes, Label = 20 bits. Can be used over Ethernet, 802.3, or PPP links Contains everything needed at forwarding time Label = 20 bits EXP = Class of Service, 3 bits S = Bottom of Stack, 1 bit TTL = Time to Live, 8 bits 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Label EXP S TTL 56
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MPLS Operation (Summary) The following steps must be taken for a data packet to travel through an MPLS domain. label creation and distribution table creation at each router label-switched path creation label insertion/table lookup packet forwarding 57
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Tunneling in MPLS Control the entire path of a packet without explicitly specifying the intermediate routers. Creating tunnels through the intermediary routers that can span multiple segments. MPLS based VPNs. 58
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MPLS Advantages Improves packet-forwarding performance in the network Supports QoS and for service differentiation Supports network scalability Integrates IP and ATM in the network Builds interoperable networks 59
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MPLS Disadvantages An additional layer is added The router has to understand MPLS 60
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Introduction to Cloud Computing 61
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What is Cloud Computing? Cloud Computing – NIST Definition: “A model for enabling convenient, on- demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction” 62
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What is Cloud Computing? Cloud Computing is a general term used to describe a new class of network based computing that takes place over the Internet, a collection/group of integrated and networked hardware, software and Internet infrastructure (called a platform). Using the Internet for communication and transport provides hardware, software and networking services to clients These platforms hide the complexity and details of the underlying infrastructure from users and applications by providing very simple graphical interface or API (Applications Programming Interface).
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