oxidative phosphorylation The electron carriers bring electrons to the ETC

Oxidative phosphorylation the electron carriers bring

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(oxidative phosphorylation) - The electron carriers bring electrons to the ETC, which help pump hydrogen to the intermembrane space Glycolysis (cytoplasm) Kreb’s Cycle (matrix of mito.) ETC (cristae of mito.) g l u c o s e H 2 O O 2 C O 2 F A D H 2 N A D H N A D H A T P A T P A T P
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- This creates a proton gradient, causing the hydrogen to flow back through the ATP synthase - ATP synthase spins and snaps a phosphate on ADP, creating ATP - Electron carriers are oxidized and free to go pick up more electrons - Oxygen is crucial to pick up leftover electrons and leave as water Fermentation - Purpose - To make ATP without oxygen - Diagram - Alcoholic fermentation - C₆H₁₂O₆ → 2CO₂+ATP+2C₂H₅OH - Used in making alcoholic drinks and yeast in bread - Lactic acid fermentation - During the need for a sudden burst of energy when not enough oxygen is available - Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid so NADH can be freed up for glycolysis to continue - When more oxygen is available, the lactic acid is turned back into pyruvate and the rest of cellular respiration can occur - C₆H₁₂O₆ → lactic acid Photosynthesis - Purpose - To create glucose - Diagram - Equation Light Depend ent Reaction (thylakoi d) Calvin’s Cycle (stroma) A T P H 2 O O 2 N A D P H g l u c o s C O 2
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- 6CO₂+6H₂0+light energy→6O₂+C₆H₁₂O₆ - Light Dependent Reaction - Light is used to excite electrons and a high energy electron is used to start the reaction - To replace the missing electron, H2O is broken and an electron takes its place - Creates O2 - Photosystem 2 uses an ETC and ATP synthase to create ATP - Photophosphorylation - Photosystem 1 accepts the electrons from Photosystem 2 and creates NADPH - Both ATP and NADPH will power the next cycle - Calvin Cycle - Does not require light - Energy from ATP and NADPH will fix CO2 and make G3P (pgal) and then glucose (rubisco does the carbon fixation) - ADP and NADP+ will be sent back to the light dependent reaction
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