activities is compiled, all one needs do is go activity by activity and determine what resources are required to carry out the activity and list them down. 6. Budgeting. This is assigning monetary value to the resource requirements identified in 5 above to arrive to the total amount of money required to carry out the project. 7. Determination of monitoring / evaluation criteria. Monitoring and evaluation must be part and parcel of every successful project. In a nutshell, it enables one to
54know whether the project is heading in the right direction towards achieving the set objectives. It therefore means that monitoring and evaluation must be integral components of all the stages of the project’s life cycle. Summary • Good project objectives make the development of a project action plan easy. It also makes evaluation of the project easy because it makes clear what indicators will be used during evaluation. Note • When setting a time frame/schedule, it is necessary to give an allowance (buffer) to cater for lag time due to unforeseen events. This assists in accommodating for the unexpected events so that activities are carried out as planned. Self Assessment Questions 1. State the characteristics of good project objectives. 2. Explain the procedure to follow when determining project activities.
55Lesson 8: TARGETING Introduction Targeting is the determination of which persons, organizations, communities or other units to which the project will be directed. It is therefore the determination of project beneficiaries i.e. the group to benefit from the project. A project should be directed at a specific group who happen to be in greatest need. If this is not done, then the project is bound to fail. Activity 8.0 • Find out how the beneficiaries of a project in your locality were selected. Do you think the method used to identify the beneficiaries left out some deserving cases and/or ended up including people who did not deserve to be in the project? Objectives By the end of this lesson, you should be able to: • Explain the importance of targeting. • Describe factors that affect targeting. • Explain how to reduce targeting errors.
56The population to benefit from a project must be clearly defined for the following reasons: (1) To cover the group in greatest need of the project. This is because project resources are limited and therefore only adequate to serve a small proportion of the population in greatest need. (2) For the project to have the greatest effect on a specific group. When project activities are directed at a small population subgroup, its impact is far more than it would be if the benefits were superficially spread to a big group.