Combining earplugs with earmuffs can offer a NRR protection level of 36

Combining earplugs with earmuffs can offer a nrr

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• Combining earplugs with earmuffs can offer a NRR protection level of 36. Generally, higher-quality devices that cost more receive a higher NRR rating. PKG ‐ H&S (06) 28
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PHYSICAL AGENTS VIBRATION • Vibration means rapid movement ‘to and fro’ or oscillating movement. • Vibration can be characterised by its: o Course in time (stable, periodically changing, transitory, randomly changing, shock type excitation, impulse/impact) o Magnitude o Frequency spectrum PKG ‐ H&S (06) 29
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PHYSICAL AGENTS VIBRATION (cont….) • Local vibration occurs predominantly in the hands and arms, as the worker mainly operates tools/machines with his/her hands. This is termed Hand-Arm Vibration (HAV). • Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) refers to damage to muscles, joints, circulation and nerves in the hand and arm caused by HAV. PKG ‐ H&S (06) 30
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PHYSICAL AGENTS Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) is experienced when sitting, standing or lying on a vibrating surface. For example , a forklift truck operator or tractor driver may be exposed to WBV. Health Effects of Hand-Arm Vibration: • Vibration-induced health conditions progress slowly. In the beginning, it starts as a pain. • As the vibration exposure continues, the pain may develop into an injury or disease. PKG ‐ H&S (06) 31
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PHYSICAL AGENTS Workers affected by HAVS commonly report: • Vibration-induced white finger (VWF), or dead finger, or wax finger, or Raynaud's phenomenon • Tingling and loss of sensation in the fingers • Loss of grip strength • Bone cysts in fingers and wrists PKG ‐ H&S (06) 32
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PHYSICAL AGENTS Health Effects of Whole-Body Vibration: Whole-body vibration can cause: o Fatigue o Insomnia o Stomach disorders o Headache • The symptoms are similar to those that many people experience after a long car or boat trip. • After daily exposure over a number of years, whole-body vibration can affect the entire body and result in a number of health disorders. PKG ‐ H&S (06) 33
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EMERGENCY RESPONSE; MECHANICAL HAZARDS; MACHINE GUARDING Emergency Response Fire Protection / Flammable Liquids Legislation related to machine guards (OHSA & Regulations respecting Industrial Establishments) Areas of a machine which require safe guarding/ common machine hazards, motion and actions that require guards Types of guards; barrier guards and presence-sensing guards Characteristics of an "effective" guard Mobile and Lifting Equipment PKG ‐ H&S (07) 1
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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS / EMERGENCY RESPONSE • Emergencies can happen anywhere, any time without warning. They can be caused by severe weather, infectious diseases, industrial accidents or spills, or by intentional acts. • The very nature of an emergency is unpredictable and can change in scope and impact. • The more you are prepared for them, the better you will be able to act, minimizing panic and confusion when an emergency occurs.
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