The observation itself is known as the law of gravity

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The observation itself is known as the law of gravity But someday that might change.. Deduction: Logical Reasoning Deductive reasoning is vital in analyzing the consequences of a hypothesis. - Start from a general statement drawn logically - Conclusions are robust (reliable) at least internally - Known as a top down approach - Just as inductive reasoning has a weak point so does deductive - The deductive conclusion is only as good as the premises it is based on - Although logically correct, a deductive conclusion based on incorrect premises is itself invalid The scientific method: - Based mainly on inductive reasoning and limited observations - Deductive reasoning plays a vital role devising tests (usually called experiments) 1. Observation(s) 2. Question(s) – WHY HOW 3. Formation of a hypothesis 4. Test of hypothesis…. Do an experiment 5. Critically evaluate the results of the test 6. Determine if the hypothesis is supported or contradicted
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7. Disseminates (announce) that information particularly (5) and (6), usually in a referred publication (peer review) If a hypothesis is disproved then the question still remains. If it is supported then there may be deductive predictions of that hypothesis which must be themselves tested - You can subject that hypothesis to many, many tests; eventually to establish a theory A good scientific hypothesis should be falsifiable (can be disproved) at least in principle. For example - The mood is made of cheese - Cell phones can cause cancer - The suns energy source is nuclear fusion A hypothesis that can’t be falsified, i.e is untestable, isn’t a scientific statement - God and Afterlife - Before the Big Bang - Some ‘conspiracy theories’ Scientific Experiments: - To be useful test of a hypothesis, an experiment must be o Controlled o Statistically significant o Repeatable Any experiment which fails one or more of these tests is flawed and its results shouldn’t be trusted until they have been reproduced by a reliable experiment. Controlled Experiments: Many factors called variables may influence the outcomes of an experiments In a controlled experiment the outcomes depends on only one variable Control Group Subject Group Group 1 Common Environment Group 2 (many variables)
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