Lobe of left hemisphere suggests dysregulation of the

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lobe of left hemisphere suggests dysregulation of the lobe of left hemisphere suggests dysregulation of the orbital frontal-caudate circuit (alerts rest of brain when orbital frontal-caudate circuit (alerts rest of brain when something is wrong). In OCD, it is weakened, and something is wrong). In OCD, it is weakened, and disturbing thoughts may leak through. Response to disturbing thoughts may leak through. Response to medication also suggests serotonin deficiency. medication also suggests serotonin deficiency. Psychodynamic Psychodynamic : Attempts to fend off anal sadistic : Attempts to fend off anal sadistic (antisocial), anal libidinous (pleasurable soiling) and (antisocial), anal libidinous (pleasurable soiling) and genital (masturbatory) impulses. The obsession is a less genital (masturbatory) impulses. The obsession is a less threatening substitute or replacement for the original threatening substitute or replacement for the original conflict. conflict.
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Etiology of OCD (cont.): Etiology of OCD (cont.): Cognitive and behavioral Cognitive and behavioral : Obsessive-compulsive : Obsessive-compulsive behaviors develop to reduce anxiety. The individual behaviors develop to reduce anxiety. The individual does not trust own memories and judgment and make does not trust own memories and judgment and make attempts to determine if they did something attempts to determine if they did something “correctly.” The uncertainty leads to rituals. Person is “correctly.” The uncertainty leads to rituals. Person is subject to disconfirmatory bias, probability bias, and subject to disconfirmatory bias, probability bias, and morality bias. morality bias. Social and sociocultural Social and sociocultural : Overly critical parenting and : Overly critical parenting and adverse environments may be related to development adverse environments may be related to development of OCD. More common among the young and those of OCD. More common among the young and those who are divorced, separated, or unemployed. Less who are divorced, separated, or unemployed. Less likely to be diagnosed in AfAm and HisAm than likely to be diagnosed in AfAm and HisAm than Whites. Whites.
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Treatment of OCD: Treatment of OCD: Biochemical treatments Biochemical treatments SSRIs to increase available serotonin (only 60-80% SSRIs to increase available serotonin (only 60-80% respond to these) respond to these) Benzodiazepines less effective with OCD than other Benzodiazepines less effective with OCD than other anxiety disorders anxiety disorders Clomipramine (tricyclic antidepressant) in small Clomipramine (tricyclic antidepressant) in small dosages are taken by some AsAm and Whites due to dosages are taken by some AsAm and Whites due to metabolic differences metabolic differences Behavioral treatments Behavioral treatments Combination of exposure (flooding or gradual Combination of exposure (flooding or gradual exposure) and response prevention is the treatment exposure) and response prevention is the treatment of choice of choice
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