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In Europe there are policies to get people to have more kids Flexibility for families Diffusion of norms If your in a country that is surrounded by other countries who have fertility decline- then the smaller family size norm spreads to adjacent counties because there is more contactCont of Pop. Distribution Europe’s population is going to decrease in the next 40 years Rapid increases in Asia, India, and china
Stays modest in Latin America, north America, and Australia Population Decline and Aging In advanced economies kids become expensive and people cannot have a lot of kids Before 1990 there were no known instances in a population with low fertility levelsIn 1990 in Europe- fertility levels dropped and could keep dropping We are going to have a huge group of elders and small group of working people Like the baby bomb, there is evidence that the low levels of fertility are just temporary US in Comparative Perspective How does the US work out so well ? We have 2.1 fertility Other countries at similar economies have problems with fertility 3 differences between us and comparison countries people have kids at younger ages in US than Europe diverse racially and ethnically population Non marital child bearing is REALLY common in USA Childbearing in Sociological Perspective Ideal number of kids is a normative concept (invisible strings) subject to change (socially constructed)If you were born during baby bomb or Africa, you would want for kids then you want to have The ideal number of children seems to fit with the circumstances of a particular time and place Societies adjust to adapt to contracts and the incentives to have larger or smaller children Intensely personal decision taken collectively have profound consequences for society Why cohabitation increased?Insignificant before the 60’s What changed? A relaxation of children outside of marriage Attitudinal changes “ring mate” could get landline to ring as two separate numbers- so the parents would never discover they were living togetherfor parental disapproval better reproductive technologyas people get married at older ages, there is a long period to be filled, they either live alone or share expenses with their partnerapproaching 5 million cohabiting people that could be cohabiting, arecohabiting relationships are short lived
for 2009- no partner 35 %, married 58%, cohabiter 7% btw 30-44one cohabiter couple for every nine married couples half of cohab couples will get married people who cohabit can use this as a testing ground Other Points about cohabitation •differ from marital relationships •differences in people who choose to cohabit •some of the ways they differotend to be youngerodifferent attitudes oless religious oeducational differences college graduates are less likely to less cohabit compared to no college graduates orelationships differ, but the people who chooses to cohabit differ-11% of all unions are cohabiting. 1 cohabiting couple for every 9 married couples -US in Comparative Perspective o