Republicans claimed that tariffs benefitted workers because they created jobs

Republicans claimed that tariffs benefitted workers

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Republicans claimed that tariffs benefitted workers because they created jobs, blocked low-wage foreign competition, and safeguarded America from the kind of industrial poverty that had arisen in EuropeTariffs helped American men earn enough to support their families Allowed wives to devote themselves to homemaking Allowed children to go to school, and a not a factory to workBoth sides were paritally rightTariffs played a role in economic growth and helped transform the US into a global industrial powerTariffs did not prevent industrial povertyCorporations accumulated massive benefits, but failed to pass them along to workersTariffs allowed some corporations to dominate whole sectors of the economy and wield near-monopoly powerThe Role of CourtsRepublicans did not give government enough power over the new corporationsState legislatures passed hundreds of regulatory laws after the Civil War, but interstate companies challenged them in federal courts
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Munn v. IllinoisSupreme Court affirmed that states could regulate key businesses (railroads and grain elevators) that were in the public interestJustices feared too many state and local regulations would impede business and fragment the national marketplaceInterpreted “due process” clause of the 14th amendment (no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process [fair treatment through normal judicial system] of law) asshielding corporations from excessive regulationFederal courts promoted economic development at the expense of racial justiceNew Mexican and Arizonian land remained in the hands of Mexican farmers and ranchers Many lived as peones, under longstanding agreements with landowners who held large tracts originally granted by the Spanish crown After the Civil War and with the increase in railroads in the area, land-hungry anglos came Mexican shepherds were “asked” to leave their rangesCongress set up special courts to rule on land titles 1891-1904: court invalidated most traditional claimsMexican Americans lost 64 percent of the contestedlandsLand was sold or appropriated through legal machinations known as the Santa Fe RingResult: displacement of thousands of Mexican American villagers and farmers Some became railroad builders or min workers Others moved and developed sheepraising into a major enterpriseSilver and GoldIndustrializing nations tried to develop an international system of standard
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measurement and a unified currency Proposals failed becasue of nations’ self-interestBut governments agreed that mone should be based on goldGreat Britian long held the gold standardThe practice of backing a country’s currency with itsreserves of gold. In 1873 the United States, following Great Britain and other European nations,began converting to the gold standard.
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