Flood flood notes that the predominance of aryan

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(Flood)
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Flood notes that the “predominance of Aryan culture over Dravidian culture is not disputed” The dominant narrative has the Dravidian people “subjugated by means of superior war technology” – notably the horse and chariot
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The Aryans then “spread over the northern plains and, some time after 1000 BC, reached the Ganges region” This became the “‘Aryan homeland’” (aryavarta) – Sanskrit arya = “noble” people
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“Knowledge of the Aryans comes mostly from their sacred text the Rg Veda Samhita, the earliest literature of Hinduism” (c. 1200 BC?) The Veda (‘Knowledge’) is often considered a “timeless revelation (sruti) not of human authorship received by the ancient seers (rsi)” Transmitted orally (Vedic Sanskrit), written down “some thousand years after its composition” (Flood)
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The “primary function” of the Veda “is a ritual one” The “central religious practice of the vedic Aryans was sacrifice (ed. public and domestic) and sharing of the sacrificial meal with each other and with the many supernatural beings or devas” A variety of “ritual substances would be transported through…fire to…devas”
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A rough categorization of the Veda: 1) Rg Veda: “a collection (samhita)…of 1028 hymns to various deities” (c. 1200 BC?) 2) Brahmanas: “texts describing rules for ritual and explanation about…its meaning and purpose” (c. 1000-800 BC?) 3) Upanisads: explain “the true nature and meaning of ritual” (c. 600-300 BC?) (Flood)
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Other (later) texts not considered revelation (sruti) but “of human authorship”–“secondary or indirect revelation” (smrti) Puranas: “stories of the ancient past” dealing with people and gods – oral traditions established by (c. 320-500 CE) The Ramayana and Mahabarata: epic poems “established” by 1 st century CE – roots much older (Flood)
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As with many other traditions, we have myths here which complement, overlap with, and even contradict each other We should be wary of applying our modern expectations of logic to ancient traditions
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In the Rg Veda we have hints of two important gods from ages past: Dyaus Patir and Prithivi Mata Williams writes that “their time of honor was already over and their myths were not even retold”
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Based on the name - Dyaus Patir – what can you deduce about the first god?
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The “celestia1 nature” of Indo-European gods is suggested by terms such as “deiwos” (“god”), which is a derivative of “dyeu” (“sky, day”), and “dyeus phater” (“sky father”) Dyaus Patir is thus etymologically connected with Zeus and his Roman equivalent, Jupiter
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Dyaus Patir is a faint echo of the Indo- European “sky father”: “Dyaus, King, Begetter, raining down blessings” We have here imagery of a male sky divinity pouring down his seed
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While Zeus is etymologically associated with Dyaus Pitar, it was Ouranos who fulfilled the “sky father” function in Greek myth Sky (male) and Earth (female) commonly paired as a reproductive, generative system Ouranos desired “unremitting intercourse” with the Earth (Gaia)
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Flood Flood notes that the predominance of Aryan culture...

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