26 what are the different stages in b cell maturation

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26. What are the different stages in B-cell maturation and differentiation? Stem cell Pre-B-cells- Immature B-cells Mature B-cells Activated (Plasma) 27. Describe the structure of an antibody. Light chains on the inside, heavy chains on the outside. Variables bind to antigens at the top; the bottom heavy sides of the chains activate compliment and phagocytes 28. What is the role of the variable region? What role does DNA rearrangement play in this role? Variable chain binds to the antigen, the role of DNA rearrangement is to give a unique receptor for each lymphocyte. 29. What are the different antibody classes we discussed? Note any differences in activity or structure between the classes. IgG- most abundant, most extensive long lived antibody response, bivalent, Fc region binds to phagocytes, most significant group neutralizing toxins and viruses often by blocking their binding, only class that can cross placental barrier and confer passive immunity. IgM- pentameric structure, effective aggulutinating antibody, binds to compliment IgA- involved in local immunity (protecting epithelial surfaces, ie mucosal surfaces), interferes with attachment of microbes to surface 30. What are some ways in which antibodies are involved in clearing an infection or preventing disease? Agglutination, neutralization, opsonization, compliment activation, NK mediated cytotoxicity
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31. Why do you see a stronger response the second time you are exposed to an antigen? The memory cells kick in the second time around for a faster response since the body has already been exposed to that antigen before, so its stronger and faster. 32. What is the difference in the timing of the adaptive response in primary vs. secondary infections? Immune responses to the secondary infections tend to be a lot faster than the primary
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