Surkotada situated in kutch bhuj district of gujarat

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SURKOTADA: Situated in Kutch (Bhuj) district of Gujarat and excavated by J.R Joshi in 1972, Surkotada was an important fortified Harappan settlement. The site is important particularly because it has provided the remains of horse bones . But its identity is doubtful. A cemetery with four pot burials with some human bones has also been found. A grave has been found in association with a big rock, a rare finding of the Harappan culture.
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NEO IAS 0484-3190310, 9446331522, 9446334122 Page 4 | | | DHOLOVIRA Dholavira is located in Rann of Katch of Gujarat . It is excavated in 1990s by a team led by R S Bisht. It had several large reservoirs, an elaborate system of drains to collect water from the city walls and house tops to fill these water tanks. Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Dholavira are called the nucleus cities of the civilization. Unlike the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro where there are two settlements, in Dholavira 3 citadels or principal divisions have been found which have been duly protected by fortifications. There is an open ground out of the fortifications. In Dholavira there has been found the inner enclosure of the citadel too which has not been found in any other cities of the Harappan culture. One of the most important findings of Dholavira has been a signboard with Indus Script . WATER CONSERVATION OF DHOLAVIRA Water conservation of Dholavira speaks volume of the ingenuity of the people who developed a system based on rainwater harvesting to support life in a parched landscape, with scanty sweet water. Relying partly on rain-water and little from the ground a complex water system comprising of large rock-cut reservoirs , located at the eastern and southern fortification and rock-cut wells were developed. Huge stone drains can be seen in the city the directed storm water to the western and northern section of the lower town separated by broad bunds, creating in-effect a series of reservoirs. The most imposing well was located in the castle and is possibly the earliest example of a rock cut well. The city also drew water from the seasonal streams flowing on the northern and southern faces of the fortification . The water from these streams was slowed by a series of dams and partly channelized water into the lower town. Every drop of water was conserved to ensure survival. CHANHU DARO Excavations at Chanhu-daro have revealed three different cultural layers from lowest to the top being Indus culture, the Jhukar culture and the Jhangar culture. The site is especially important for providing evidences about different Harappan factories . These factories produced seals, toys and bone implements . It was the only Harappan city without a citadel. Some remarkable findings at Chanhu-daro include bronze figures of bullock cart and ekkas; a small inkpot , footprints of an elephant and a dog chasing a cat.
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