When these other influences on what we say and do are

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When these other influences on what we say and do are minimal Use implicit association test (IAT) to measure attitude A computer-driven assessment of implicit attitudes Uses reaction times to measure people’s automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative words Easier pairings and faster responses are taken to indicate stronger unconscious associations Has detractors
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o Not reliable enough for use in assessing and comparing individuals o Some relative bias doesn’t distinguish a positive bias for one group from a negative bias against another o Wonder whether compassion and guilt rather than latent hostility might slow one’s speed in associating Blacks with positive words Explicit (self-report) and implicit attitudes both help predict people’s behaviors and judgments Better than either alone Dual processing Capacity for both controlled (deliberate, conscious, explicit) and automatic (effortless, habitual, implicit) thinking For attitudes formed early in life Implicit and explicit attitudes frequently diverge Implicit attitudes often being the better predictor of behavior For other attitudes Explicit self-reports are better predictor Amygdala A center for threat perception Active as we automatically evaluate social stimuli Frontal lobe areas Involved in detecting and regulating implicit attitudes Social influences can be enormous Enormous enough to induce people to violate their deepest convictions o When the attitude is specific to the behavior When the measured attitude is a general one and the behavior is very specific (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) Should not expect a close correspondence between words and actions Attitudes did predict behavior In which the measured attitude was directly pertinent to the situation Theory of planned behavior Knowing people’s intended behaviors and their perceived self-efficacy and control o Inducing new intentions induces new behavior Specific, relevant attitudes do predict intended and actual behavior To change habits through persuasion Best alter people’s attitudes toward specific practices
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o When the attitude is potent Much of our behavior is automatic Act out familiar scripts without reflecting on what we’re doing Such mindlessness is adaptive Frees our minds to work on other things For habitual behaviors Conscious intentions hardly are activated Bringing attitudes to mind Our attitudes become potent if we think about them Self-conscious people usually are in touch with their attitudes Induce people to focus on their inner convictions o Make them self-aware o Having them act in front of a mirror (Carver & Scheier, 1981) o Promotes consistency between words and deeds o Mirrors did bring behavior into line with espoused moral attitudes (Batson, 1999) Forging strong attitudes through experience Attitudes that best predict behavior are accessible and stable
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