This beaker has a thin plated ring around its mouth a

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cylindrical product is symmetrical and is free-standing. This beaker has a thin-plated ring around its mouth, a smooth exterior, and a ribbed body. The possible function of the Gu beaker was to hold liquids due to its upright and free-standing position and wide rim around the mouth. [12] Cong prism, Jade, Jiangsu. Neolithic period, Lia ngzhu culture, 2000 BCE The Cong prism (prismatic tube) belongs to the Neolithic period and is characterized by its jade composition usually found in the Eastern Coastal Plain (Liangzhu) culture. Carved from a boulder of jade, this large rectangular prism has a cylindrical inner surface (cong) and a hole that goes through the top to the bottom, making a tube-like detail. Provided that jade is a hard stone, this piece is assumed to have required advance carving and grinding technique. On the sharp rectangular corners that protrude from the circular body are engraved spiral and circular representations. These exterior incisions render characteristics of eyes, noses, and mouth “masks”, symbolizing both water and animal mask motifs. Xia (2205-1766 BCE) and Shang (1766-1045 BCE) Max Loehr's Five Styles of Shang bronzes (Raised and Cut-in styles) Motifs: taotie (ogre, hungry monster); kui (dragon) Zhengzhou (Shang): Styles I and II Anyang (Shang): Styles IV and V Rubbing of the Inscription (Shang): pictographs show ownership Shang styles: crisp, combination of many animals in one form [30] Li He. Bronze. Shang dynasty, Sixteenth-Fourteenth century BCE. This is a bronze Li He (ceremonial wine vessel) of the Shang dynasty. This vessel is characterized as Style II since there is a single band of motifs, probably representations of kui or tao-tie, that were cut-in but not elevated or raised into relief. Besides this single band, the rest of the body is plain. The vessel has three conical legs that protrude from the body and provides the vessel with the necessary support to stand autonomously. Given that this is a relatively early Shang bronze piece, this vessel is composed of thin sheets of bronze, which could be inferred by the evident thinness of the spout on the top and the handle on the back. Because the vessel has a spout angled towards the front and a handle located at the back for ease of handling, this vessel is probably used to store liquids, presumably wine, for ceremonial purposes. [33] Jue. Bronze, Liulige, Henan. Early Shang dynasty. This is a bronze Jue (ceremonial wine vessel) of the Zhengzhou phase of the early Shang dynasty. The motifs on the body of this vessel are characterized by Style II; the figure has thick walls and a wider band of motif depictions that runs on the lower half of the vessel. Since the band of motifs between Styles I and II got wider, clear formal depictions of the tao-tie (hungry monster) and kui (dragon) began to become common motifs on bronze products. Centered on each of the three legs, these motifs have distinct and symmetrical
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patterns that are repeated as the band stretches around the body of the vessel, as shown on the vessel’s base. Moreover, these motifs appear to be raised or elevated to the point that they are in relief on the vessel’s surface. The base is circular and has three pointy legs with
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