B the action of glucagon is primarily in the liver

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Human Heredity: Principles and Issues
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Chapter 12 / Exercise 23
Human Heredity: Principles and Issues
Cummings
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b. The action of glucagon is primarily in the liver where it stimulates glycogenolysis. It also produces neoglucogenesis by breaking down fats to ketones, fatty acids, and glucose, and proteins to amino acids and glucose. The serious problem of ketoacidosis in the type 1 diabetic is produced primarily by the action of glucagon.c. Glucagon is used IV (can be given IM or SC) in conjunction with glucose in the treatment of acute hypoglycemic reactions. Response usually occurs in 5-20 min; unresponsive individuals may need more injections. Neonate: Recognized in Neofax for treatment of hypoglycemia refractory to IV dextrose infusion. Suggested dose is 200 mcg/kg/dose by IV push, IM, or SC.2. DIAZOXIDE, ORAL [PROGLYCEM]a. Diazoxide is an agent, chemically related to the thiazides, which is used to treat chronic hypoglycemia. Given orally, it causes a dose-dependent increase in blood glucose by stimulating epinephrine release, inhibiting insulin release, and enhancing glucose mobilization. It is indicated for the management of hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism.Neonatal: Recognized in Neofax for treatment of persistent or severe hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism. Administered 2 to 5 mg/kg/dose PO given Q8 hours.b. The most common adverse effect is sodium and water retention. It may worsen heart failure orhypertension. It may also cause hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. GI upset may occur, especially with high doses. 4. Octreotide is a long-acting analog of the natural hormone somatostatin. It is used in infants to treat refractory hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Neofax 2009 suggested dose is 1 mcg/kg/dose Q6H subQ or IV.G. Miscellaneous Agents used in diabetes. Becaplermin [Regranex gel 0.01%] is approved as a platelet-derived growth factor for diabetic ulcers. This is a recombinant DNA antibiotic for topical use in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic ulcers of the lower extremities. The dosing of the product is complex (based on the length of the wound times the width) even though it is applied (as a gel) only once daily.)69
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Human Heredity: Principles and Issues
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Chapter 12 / Exercise 23
Human Heredity: Principles and Issues
Cummings
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EndocrineCONDITIONS TREATED (CORTICOSTEROIDS): ADRENAL MALFUNCTION, AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, ASTHMA, DERMATITIS, CANCER.VICORTICOSTEROIDS steroids which are released from the adrenal cortecA.General information (Chapt 60, p. 760 & Chapt 72, p. 909 Lehne; Hefindal, Chapt 16., p. 305; Chisholm Chapt 42, p. 685; Katzung Chapt 39, p. 697)1. “Steroids” are compounds with a cyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus. There are many such compounds ranging from vitamins A and D to the sex hormones, cholesterol, and the corticosteroids. Even digoxin has a steroid nucleus. “Corticosteroids” are steroids produced by the adrenal cortex.2. zhydrocortisone is the physiologic substance. The adrenal cortex synthesizes (from cholesterol) and secretes two major classes of corticosteroids, classified according to the potencies of these compounds to evoke distal renal tubular reabsorption of sodium in exchange for potassium (mineralocorticoid effect - aldosterone) or to influence glucose, fat, and protein metabolism as well as produce an antiinflammatory response (

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