Glencoe Health 2005.pdf

Menstruation cervix 476 chapter 18 endocrine and

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menstruation cervix 476 Chapter 18 Endocrine and Reproductive Systems Eating nutritious foods and avoiding caffeine can often reduce discomfort related to menstruation. What other health behaviors will keep your reproductive system healthy? T HE M ENSTRUAL CYCLE Days 1–13 A new egg is maturing inside the ovary. Day 14 The mature egg is released into one of the fallopian tubes. Days 15–20 The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Days 21–28 After seven days, if the egg is not fertilized, menstruation begins.
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BREAST SELF-EXAM Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of death, after lung cancer, for women in the United States. The American Cancer Society recommends that females examine their breasts once a month, right after the menstrual period, when breasts are not tender or swollen. Early detection is an important factor in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Lie down and place a pillow under the right shoulder. Place the right arm behind the head. Use the fingers of the left hand to feel for lumps or thickening in the right breast. Move around the breast first in a circle, then up and down, and be sure to go over the entire breast area. Repeat the procedure the same way each month. Examine the left breast with the right hand. Repeat the examination of both breasts while standing, with one arm behind the head. In the upright position, check the upper and outer parts of the breasts, toward the armpit. Stand- ing in front of a mirror, inspect the breasts for any dimpling of the skin, changes in the nipple, redness, or swelling. Problems of the Female Reproductive System everal disorders can affect the female reproductive system. S Problems related to menstruation can range from minor dis- comfort to life-threatening illness. Menstrual cramps sometimes occur at the beginning of a menstrual period. Light exercise or applying a heating pad to the abdominal area may help relieve symptoms. A health care professional may recommend medication for pain relief. Severe or persistent cramping, called dysmenorrhea, may be an indication that professional health services are required. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a disorder caused by hormonal changes. Its symptoms, which may be experienced one to two weeks before menstruation, include nervous tension, anxiety, irritability, bloating, weight gain, depression, mood swings, and fatigue. Regular physical activity and good nutrition may reduce the severity of symptoms. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but serious bacterial infection that affects the immune system and the liver, and can be fatal. To reduce the risk of TSS, use tampons with the lowest possible absorbency and change tampons often. Warning signs of TSS include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, a sunburnlike rash, red eyes, dizziness, and muscle aches. Any female with these symptoms should seek health care immediately.
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