The cause of chronic bronchitis is typically smoking, asthma or those frequently exposed to environmental allergens (such as coal workers, grain handlers, construction/mill workers, or anyone frequently exposed to dust or fumes (Higginson, 2010). Many people who have chronic bronchitis eventually develop emphysema, which is a type of lung disease (Madell, 2016). According to Madell (2016), 90 percent of those with the disease have a history of smoking. Inhaling cigarette smoke temporarily paralyzes the cilia, so frequent smoking over an extended period can severely damage the cilia. Symptoms of acute andchronic bronchitis include a cough, production of mucus (sputum), which can be clear, white, yellowish-gray, it may be streaked with blood, fatigue, shortness of breath, slight fever and chills, and chest discomfort (Mayo Clinic, 2017). A diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is based on the patient’s history of symptoms, physical examination, chest imaging, pulmonary function tests, and blood gases. (Huether & McCance, 2017). TreatmentMost cases of bronchitis are caused by viral infections, and antibiotics may not beeffective; however, if the provider suspects a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed(Mayo Clinic, 2017). The main aim of pharmacologic intervention for the patient with chronicbronchitis is to prevent acute exacerbations (Fayyaz, 2017). Vaccinations (such as influenza andpneumonia), a combination of daily and as needed inhalers, and muscle relaxers are amongstcommon treatments for chronic bronchitis (Fayyaz 2017). Inhaled rescue bronchodilators also
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- chronic bronchitis