Reduced sharing of interests or emotions Internal empathetic response may be lacking A2: Nonverbal communication Abnormalities in eye contact and body language Deficits in understanding and use of gesture and facial expressions A3: Relationships Difficulties in sharing imaginative play Difficulty making friends Absence of interest in peers CRITERIA B: Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities*must include at least 2 of the following: B1, B2, B3, B4*B1: Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech Repetitive behaviors (flapping hands, spinning objects, lining up toys) Scripted or stereotyped speech Echolalia: immediately repeating phrases used by others Formal or not coherent speech Pronoun reversal Flat and monotone speech Individual is speaking to quickly or in a jerky way B2: Insistence on sameness, routines Extreme distress at small changes Difficulties with transitions B3: Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus B4: Hyper – or hypo – reactivity to sensory input or unusual interests in sensory aspects of the environmentAdverse response to specific sounds or textures Visual fascination with lights or movement Sensory self-stimulation oTextures, feelings and rubbing hair oSeeking firm touches oTouching maintains positive emotions oSniffing objects or sniffing people and rocking Fascination with movement or lights
Additional Criteria: Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period oFirst 3 years of life Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning Most people diagnosed in early life ASD SEVERITY: Level 1: oRequiring support Level 2: oRequiring substantial support Level 3: oRequiring very substantial support ASD Associated CharacteristicsOther behaviors we often see with people on the spectrum Cognitive Impairments: o50-75% in intellectual disability range (IQ < 70)othe percent who show intellectual disability are decreasing because the spectrum is including other diagnoses ad in general the whole spectrum is incorporating more than it used to Language Development: oone third to one half to develop any speech other may be delayed in reaching language milestones Theory of Mind Deficits: oDifficulty understanding that other people have a different point of reference oDifferent knowledge and experiences oCritical to difficulties with language development oEx. door and cup Self-Injurious Behaviors: oHead banging oSkin picking oBiting self Motor Coordination Difficulties Isolated, highly specialized skills: oSavant abilitiesoException skills minority of people on the spectrum oMostly musical or artistic abilities **HARD TO GENERALIZE BECAUSE THE DISPLAY IS SO INDIVIDUAL**PREVALENCE: Approximately 1% CDC 2012: 1 in 88 children 4-5x more common in boys easier to get diagnosed now because people are more aware the spectrum was extended to include more mild cases which increased the rates CAUSES OF ASD:
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- Spring '14
- Abnormal Psychology, Mental retardation, IQ score, IQ scores, Autism Spectrum Disorders, adaptive functioning deficits