Ii cognition is more critical for important or

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ii. Cognition is more critical for important or complex products such as computer systems, which require us to process objective or technical information before we can come to a decision. iii. 2 types of beliefs: o Informational beliefs – associated with product attributes. o Evaluative beliefs – associated with product benefits. Affective component i. Involves our feelings and emotions towards an object. ii. May be a result of several evaluations of performance. 17
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iii. Products are evaluated in context of specific situations. Behavioural component i. Represents the outcome of the cognitive and affective components – to buy or not to buy? ii. Behavioural component is manifested in both intention to buy and actual buying. Component consistency i. The cognitive, affective and behaviour components of attitudes tend to be consistent. ii. Change in one component affects the others. The functions of attitudes o Utilitarian function Refers to the idea that people express feelings to maximise the rewards and minimise the punishments they receive. We develop positive attitudes towards products that have satisfied us, and negative attitudes towards those that fail to satisfy. o Ego-defensive function Self-esteem maintenance function. To protect people from basic truths about themselves. o Value-expressive function How people express their central values to others. o Knowledge function Serve as a standard that help people to understand their environment, and so give order and meaning to it. Attitude formation – ways in which attitudes are formed: o Classical conditioning – buying new products that are associated with a favourably viewed brand name. o Instrumental conditioning – customer may buy a brand name product without already having an attitude towards it because it is the only product of its kind available. o Cognitive learning theory – customers seek info about a product to solve a problem or satisfy a need. The more info customers have about a product, the more likely they are to form attitudes about it. o Experience o External authorities – attitudes of others who we admire, e.g. friends, parents, etc. o Marketing communications – brand has something unique to offer and its unique benefits are the focus of the advert. Source credibility has 2 dimensions: trustworthiness and expertise. Strategies to change attitudes: o Changing the affective component – basic approaches that marketers follow to increase affect: Classical conditioning – marketers consistently link a stimulus that the audience likes, such as music or pictures, with the brand name. 18
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Producing positive affect toward the advert – positive affect towards the advert may increase liking of the brand through classical conditioning.
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