Jacob, L., Haro, J. M., & Koyanagi, A. (2018). Relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity

Clinical implications the present fi ndings indicate

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Clinical implications The present fi ndings indicate that screening for gambling problems among people with ADHD is important and that addressing CMDs, BPD traits, stressful life events, per- ceived stress, alcohol dependence, and impulsivity might lead to a reduction in the risk of at-risk/problem gambling in these individuals. People with ADHD should be screened for addictive behaviors such as gambling over the life course but particularly during adolescence, which is a critical period for the development of addictions. When an individ- ual with ADHD is identi fi ed with problem gambling or high risk of it by his/her pediatrician or general practitioner, he/she should be referred to specialists such as addictolo- gists and psychiatrists. Finally, a combination of psycho- therapeutic and medical therapies, which is associated with an improvement in ADHD symptoms, might be of particular interest for the prevention of development of an addictive behavior in ADHD patients ( Hesslinger et al., 2002 ; Philipsen et al., 2010 ). Strengths and limitations The large sample size and the use of nationally representa- tive data are the main strengths of this work. Furthermore, it 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 At-risk gambling Problem gambling Prevalence (%) Absence of ADHD symptoms Presence of ADHD symptoms Figure 1. Prevalence of gambling problems by attention-de fi cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the 6 items from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Scores from the individual items were added to give a total score that ranged from 0 to 24. In this study, a score of 14 and above was used to signify the possible presence of ADHD. Gambling status was assessed using 10 items from the DSM-IV criteria and the British Gambling Prevalence Survey studies. Participants were classi fi ed as having no problems (0 criteria), at-risk (1 2 criteria), or problem gambling ( 3 criteria) Table 2. Association between attention-de fi cit hyperactivity disorder and gambling problems (outcome) (multinomial logistic regression models) Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI At-risk gambling 2.15** [1.22, 3.79] 2.12* [1.19, 3.75] 1.85* [1.01, 3.40] 1.44 [0.75, 2.76] 1.38 [0.70, 2.74] 1.42 [0.66, 3.03] Problem gambling 3.57** [1.53, 8.31] 3.55** [1.46, 8.65] 2.89* [1.08, 7.71] 1.99 [0.72, 5.49] 1.74 [0.55, 5.52] 1.45 [0.36, 5.86] Note. Reference category is no gambling problems. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the 6 items from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Scores from the individual items were added to give a total score that ranged from 0 to 24. In this study, we dichotomized scale scores with a score of 14 and above being used to signify the possible presence of ADHD. Gambling status was assessed using 10 items from the DSM-IV criteria and the British Gambling Prevalence Survey studies. Participants were classi fi ed as having no problems (0 criteria), at-risk (1 2 criteria), or problem gambling ( 3 criteria). Model 1: adjusted for sex, age, and ethnicity; Model 2: adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, and employment; Model 3: adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, marital status,
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  • Fall '17
  • The Land, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Problem gambling

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