Necessity justified a flexible interpretation of his

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“necessity” justified a flexible interpretation of his war powersb.Lincoln was able to accommodate various factions and define party issues and principles in a way that would encourage unity and dedication to the causec.Jefferson Davis was a less effective war leader than Lincolnc.i.Assumed personal direction of armed forces, but left policymaking for mobilization and control of civilian population primarily to Confederate Congressc.ii.Lack of initiative and leadership in dealing w/ problems on home frontD.Early Campaigns and Battles1.Battle of Bull Run – war’s 1stmajor battle, disaster for N armsa.Poorly trained Union troops ordered to advance against Confederate forces gathered at Manassas Junction, VAb.Gen. Thomas J. Jackson earned nickname “Stonewall” for holding line against N assault until Confederate reinforcements arrived2.Humiliating defeat at Bull Run led to N high-command shake-upa.George McClellan replaced Irvin McDowell as commander of troops3.Union forces in W won some important victoriesa.Gen. Ulysses S. Grant captured Ft. Henry on Tennessee R. and Ft. Donelson on Cumberland R.b.Battle of Shiloh one of the bloodiest of the warb.i.Timely arrival of reinforcements prevented annihilation of Union troops backed up against Tennessee R.4.Union forces made little headway on E fronta.Robert E. Lee took command of Confederate Army of N VAb.When S w/drew at Battle of Antietam, Lincoln blamed McClellan for letting enemy escapec.Replaced McClellan w/ Gen. Ambrose E. BurnsideIII.Fight to the FinishA.The Coming of Emancipation1.North decided to hurt S economic and social system by freeing its slaves
a.Congress (July 1862) authorized gov’t to confiscate slaves of masters who supported Confederacyb.Slaves deserted plantations in areas where Union forces were close enough to offer haven2.One of the main obstacles to emancipation was strong racial prejudice of most whites in N & Sa.Lincoln was more tolerant than most Americans, but still pessimistic about prospects of racial equality3.Emancipation Proclamation on Jan 1, 1863, Pres. Lincoln proclaimed that the slaves of the Confederacy were freea.Since S had not yet been defeated, the proclamation did not immediately free anyone, but it made emancipation an explicit war aim of Nb.~ 25% of the slave population gained freedom during the war under these termsB.African Americans and the War1.

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