There are an infinite number of planes running

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There are an infinite number ofplanes running through the humanbody in all directions. However, wewill focus on the three planes that aretraditionally used when discussinghuman anatomy (see Figure 1). Firstis the transverse plane, (also calledthe horizontal plane), which dividesthe body into top and bottom. Inanatomical position, transverseplanes are parallel to the ground. Thesecond is the coronal plane, which isa vertical plane that divides the bodyinto the front and back sections. Ifyou do a “belly flop” into the water,you sink into the water via thecoronal planes. Finally, we will referto the sagittal plane, which dividesthe body into left and right sectionswith a vertical plane that passes fromthe front to the rear.You can use other terms to furtherpinpoint an anatomical location.These terms are used to describe alocation in relation to other structures. Some of them may beterms you have heard in everyday conversation; a lateral passin football, for example, is a pass toward the sideline.Superior, Inferior, Anterior and Posterior
Figure 1. Sagittal, Coronal, and Transverse body planes and theirintersections.By YassineMrabet (HumanAnatomyPlanes)/WikimediaCommons/CC-BY-SA.The first set of directions that we will explore are superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior.In humans, which stand upright on two feet, there are other terms that are synonymous with thesefour terms. Cephalic means toward the head and is the same as superior for a human in anatomicalposition. Caudal means toward the tail, or same as inferior for a human in anatomical position.Dorsal means toward the back and ventral means toward the belly; so dorsal and posterior are thesame direction and ventral and anterior are the same direction for a human in anatomical position.This would not be true for a four-legged animal, such as a rat or cat you might dissect in lab.Medial and LateralNext are the terms that relate structures to the midline. These are medial, lateral, andintermediate. Watch this video online:Proximal, Distal, Superficial, DeepThese next terms are used when referring to either appendicular parts of the body (arms and legs) orposition in body relative to the external surface. These are proximal, distal, superficial, and deep.Watch this video online:
Directions and OrientationTable 1 lists all of the human anatomical directions that we discussed.Table 1. Anatomical Directions and OrientationDirectional TermMeaningsuperiorabove (or toward the head)inferiorbelow (or toward the feet)distalfarther from the trunk or originproximalcloser to the trunk or origindeep (internal)away from the surfaceanterior (ventral)toward the front (or toward the belly)posterior (dorsal)toward the rear (or toward the back)medialtoward the midlinelateraltoward the sideMEDICAL IMAGINGFor thousands of years, fear of the dead and legal sanctions limited the ability of anatomists andphysicians to study the internal structures of the human body. An inability to control bleeding,infection, and pain madeLicensing & AttributionsCC licensed content, Shared previouslyUnit 2, Module 2.

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Anatomy, Human Anatomy, Human Body, Anatomical terms of location

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