Materials transported by blood to all cells or stored in body fat Carb intake

Materials transported by blood to all cells or stored

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Materials transported by blood to all cells or stored in body fat Carb intake from honey or pollen o Nectar sugars broken down by sucrase and amylase, then sugars converted to fat and glycogen o Can survive on pure carbs for long time but cannot raise brood or make gland secretions without protein Vitamins important for enzymes, can develop deficiency diseases, mostly from pollen o Biotin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamin, inositol, ascorbic acid Pollen supplies EAA and minerals for development of muscles, glands and other tissues o Adult bees begin eating within 2 hours and quickly increase pollen intake (max @ 5 days) o Pollen consumption negligible in bees over 10 days old Pollen covered w protein coat, so enzymes are needed to break open grain and digest protein (endopeptidases)
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Pollens vary in protein content and EAA, but meets fat requirements Bee EAA: Arg, His, Leu, Iso, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Val Bees need dietary cholesterol usually 24-methylene cholesterol, for normal growth Most common minerals P and K, also common: Ca, Mg, Na, Fe Salt probably retained by recovering before excretion, and little in sugar water reduces longevity Semi-solid waste excreted in flight, so water is essential (high in nectar) est annual 44lbs/ colony Fat body: white structure in insects that act as glycogen and fat store Unit 3: Honey Bee Types, Nest, and Colony Cycle Bee Types and Division of Labour Queen may have wings clipped so that she cannot fly away from the hive o Also marks the queen, indicates it’s the old queen Queens need to be replaced every 2 years, hence why they’re marked w paint on thorax or clip wings Drone brood cells stick out of combs since they are larger Queen has 2 main functions in the colony o To lay eggs, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony o To produce pheromones that help maintain colony cohesion, stimulate food foraging and regulate colony reproduction o Cannot survive alone or perform feeding and grooming duties, doesn’t even leave hive to excrete waste o Usually live 2+ years w absence of disease, parasites and environmental events Drones/ male bees develop from unfertilized eggs thru the process of parthenogenesis (unique to insect order Hymenoptera) o Only carry half the genetic material carried by females Only function is to mate w virgin queens during spring and summer o Larger than worker and barrel shaped, lives about a month o Different sex, not a caste o As they mature, they gather on pollen-filled frames outside brood area to feed o Active for 2-4 hours in afternoon when they leave the hive to mate o Few are successful and those that mate die in the process o Workers monitor them, expelling them from the hive when the weather cools in autumn Worker bees are females w undeveloped reproductive organs and constitute the majority of the adult population o Adapted to perform most of the tasks in a colony o Usually perform activities according to age, but colony system is flexible o
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