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in given technical and verification reviews, so that the required status information isprovided on time according to the project plan. Another possible status request maybe to report the number of change requests submitted, and of these submissions, howmany were rejected and why.5.2.2 MetricsMetrics are a communication tool used by the project manager to assess control ofthe project and determine if process improvements are needed.Metrics track what was changed, when it was changed, and what impact, if any,the change had on the previously captured data and potential effects on new data.These records should include enough detail to allow analysis and investigation ofprocesses that may become unstable after a change was made. The optimum set ofmetrics and their scale of granularity depend on the organization strategies, resources,technologies, and business sectors. Some metrics may be measured in time scale ortolerances and others in cost. Each measurement can help the project meet the needsof its stakeholders.Metrics help to estimate the effort required for CIs by establishing benchmarks forprevious similar work efforts. These estimates of effort may help the project manager toidentify trends in the productivity of implementing various CIs, determine if estimatingtechniques are valid, track customer satisfaction, and track rework. They can help todetermine the impact a proposed change might have, and this may in turn aid decisionmaking. This data may also help to facilitate the communication across the project,since decision-making data could be readily accessible by all.
For maximum utility, data may be presented to the project manager in a suitableformat for enhanced analysis. This formatting may include numerical values, graphicalrepresentation, tables, or text.5.2.3 BenchmarkingProject benchmarking involves comparing project processes, tools, and techniqueswith other projects. The other projects can be within or outside the project-owningorganization. The Project Management Institute’sOrganizational Project ManagementMaturity Model (OPM3 )is a source of best practices that can be used for comparisonand measurement. Benchmarks are useful in planning PCM and in analyzing results.Benchmarking is the process of capturing data from a functioning system. This datacould be from a test system before it encounters any load, or it could be capturedfrom a similar production system that a new application intends to surpass. PCM mayalso require a more specific type of benchmarking. Benchmarking can be preparedfor any aspect of a system including: training time, learning curve, ease of use, aswell as the normal data items of response time, customer serve time, and end-usersatisfaction. For PCM, this type of benchmarking produces configuration items thatare multipurpose. These items feed into the quality assurance processes and maytrigger requests for changes such as corrective action based on variance analyses.