Stores and nurse their young at breed ing sites

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Unformatted text preview: stores, and nurse their young at breed- ing sites. Zoologists had assumed that females of all phocid species, by contrast, use a fasting strategy in which mother phocids, having accumulated large energy (20) stores before they arrive at breeding sites, fast throughout the entire lactation period, which lasts from 4 to 50 days depending on the species. However, recent studies on harbor seals, a phocid species, found that (25) lactating females commenced foraging approximately 6 days after giving birth and on average made 7 foraging trips during the remainder of their 24-day lactation period. (30) The maternal strategy evolved by harbor seals may have to do with their small size and the large proportion of their fat stores depleted in lactation. Harbor seals are small compared with other phocid (35) species such as grey seals, northern ele- phant seals, and hooded seals, all of which are known to fast for the entire lactation period. Studies show that mother seals of these species use respectively 84 percent, (40) 58 percent, and 33 percent of their fat stores during lactation. By comparison, harbor seals use 80 percent of their fat stores in just the first 19 days of lactation, even though they occasionally feed during (45) this period. Since such a large proportion of their fat stores is exhausted despite feeding, mother harbor seals clearly cannot support all of lactation using only energy stored before giving birth. Though smaller 17 (50) than many other phocids, harbor seals are similar in size to most otariids. In addition, there is already some evidence suggesting that the ringed seal, a phocid species that is similar in size to the harbor seal, may also use a maternal foraging strategy.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q33: It can be inferred from the passage that the females of all phocid species differ from the females of all otariid species in that the female phocids A. have shorter lactation periods B. consume more food during lactation C. consume a higher proportion of fat stores D. forage for food occasionally during their lactation periods E. deplete a smaller percentage of their fat stores during their lactation periods Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q34: The primary purpose of the passage is to A. present evidence that several phocid species use the maternal fasting strategy B. explain why the maternal strategy typically used by phocids is different from the maternal strategy used by otariids C. argue that zoologists’ current understanding of harbor seals’ maternal strategy is incorrect D. describe an unexpected behavior observed in harbor seals and propose an explanation that may account for that behavior E. describe evidence concerning the maternal strategy of the harbor seal and suggest that the harbor seal belongs to the otariid rather than to the phocid family Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q35: According to the passage, until recently zoologists believed which of the following about all phocid mothers?...
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stores and nurse their young at breed ing sites Zoologists...

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