O valence electrons are farther from the nucleus as

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o Valence electrons are farther from the nucleus as atoms get bigger Are the following bonds polar or non-polar? If the bond is polar show the direction of polarization with (δ-) and (δ+) H-N P-P C-O F-O LiCl HBr Note: All ionic/electrostatic bonds are POLAR by definition. 9.6 And 9.7: Lewis Dot Structures, Delocalized bonding and Resonance - See the notes from section 9.4 on how to draw Lewis Structures. Your book also reviews how `to do this on page 348. C and Si will always form 4 bonds, N and P typically form three covalent bonds, O and S form 2 covalent bonds, H and the Halogens (X) form 1 covalent bond Let’s review some examples. COCl 2 CH 3 CH 2 OH
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SCl 2 PCl 3 (CH 3 ) 3 N 9.7 Resonance Structures: - describe delocalized bonding: a type of bonding in which a bonding pair of electrons is spread out over several atoms instead of one. - Double bonds (and charges) can shift around atoms in a molecule - When drawing the Lewis structure an ion pay attention to the CHARGE of that ion! For every -1 charge, add one electron to the number of valence electrons in the dot structure. For every +1 charge, subtract 1 electron from the dot structure CO 3 -2 O 3 (ozone) NO 3 - ** Understanding this concept and drawing resonance structures is extremely important to understanding reactivity and bonding in organic chemistry! 9.8 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
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-Main group elements have structures that satisfy the octet rule. Elements in period 2 do NOT have d orbitals available for bonding (check your possible quantum numbers for n = 2).
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