Random drug testing is permitted in some industries, including the transportation industry. Similarly, employees
engaged in safety- sensitive or security-sensitive jobs (nuclear reactor workers, refinery workers, peace officers, and
customs agents, for example) may be subjected to random testing.
Conflict of interest
Occurs when an individual or organization is involved in multiple interests, one of which could
motivation for an act in the other.
A conflict of interest can only exist if a person or testimony is entrusted with some
impartiality; a modicum of trust is necessary to create it. The presence of a COI is independent from the execution of
impropriety. The occupations where a COI is most likely to be encountered include: policeman, lawyer, insurance
adjuster, politician, engineer, executive, director of a corporation, medical research scientist, physician, writer, or
editor. In short—any entrusted individual or organization.
More generally, conflicts of interest can be defined as any
situation in which an individual or corporation (either private or governmental) is in a position to exploit a professional
or official capacity in some way for their personal or corporate benefit.
Depending upon the law or rules related to a particular organization, the existence of a COI may not, in and of
itself, be evidence of wrongdoing. In fact, for many professionals, it is virtually impossible to avoid having conflicts of
interest from time to time. A COI can, however, become a legal matter for example when an individual tries (and/or
succeeds in) influencing the outcome of a decision, for personal benefit.
OCI, or Organizational Conflict of Interest
An organizational COI, or OCI, may exist in the same way as described above, in the realm of the private sector providing
services to the Government, where a corporation provides two types of services to the Government that have conflicting
interest or appear objectionable (ie: manufacturing parts and then participating on a selection committee comparing parts
manufacturers). Corporations may develop simple or complex systems to mitigate the risk or perceived risk of a COI.
These risks are typically evaluated by a Governmental Office to determine whether the risks pose a substantial advantage
to the private organization over the competition or will decrease the overall competitiveness in the bidding process.
The following are the most common forms of conflicts of interests:
, in which an official who controls an organization causes it to enter into a transaction with the official, or
with another organization that benefits the official. The official is on both sides of the "deal."
Outside employment, in which the interests of one job contradict another,
Family interests, in which a spouse, child, or other close relative is employed (or applies for employment) or where
goods or services are purchased from such a relative or a firm controlled by a relative.
Gifts from friends who also do business with the person receiving the gifts. (Such gifts may include non-tangible things