individuals and the Health System (Trevethan, 2017). Most of the screening tests must be benchmarked against and agreed “Gold Standard” test (Maxim, Niebo, & Utell, (2014). Sensitivity and specificity are the most common measures mentioned for any screening or diagnostic tool, but the most informative test is the predictive values because incorporate both measures mentioned before (Joy et al. 2005). Sensitivity of breast cancer is calculated dividing the number of breasts cancer detected by the total of breast cancer cases in the population tested, this includes all breast cancer detected
MAMMOGRAPHY 5 plus the missed ones; this refers to true positives results, according to Joy et al. (2005), the mammography range between 83 to 95 percent among all studies conducted. Specificity indicates that a woman does not have the disease among the screened patients, and mammography specificities fall between 90 to 98 percent range. The risk of false-positive mammogram is 1 to 10. The predictive value measures the probability that a patient with a positive result has the disease, the higher the predictive value, the lower of false-positive results. It is calculated using the sensitivity, specificity and prevalence of woman having the disease at a given point in time (Joy et al. 2005). While mammography is the best screening tool for breast cancer currently available, mammograms do not detect all breast cancers. This is called a false-negative result. On the other hand, when a mammogram looks abnormal, and there is no cancer present, this is called a false- positive result. In many cases, these images are not enough to determine if the disease is benign or malignant; therefore, when in doubt, the radiologist should recommend other diagnostic studies. It is also important to emphasize that not all breast cancer is visible in mammography, and this is because not all breasts are equal to all women and the image may be compromised by some factors, for example, if there is dust or ointment in the breast, previous surgeries. Also, some breast cancer is more difficult to visualize than others, and in this case it is crucial if there are previous images and compares them.
MAMMOGRAPHY 6 The increase in breast density has drawn the attention of several state legislatures and, recently, the federal government has been involved for multiple reasons, including “Mammography” (2019).
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