4 researchers treat gender nonconformity as being

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4). Researchers treat gender nonconformity as being motivated by biological forces such as genes and hormones (Money & Ehrhardt, 1972; Stoller, 1974). Gender variance is different from the physical forms of biological development, although in popular culture and in the public mind they are often confused. The causes of gender variance are prob- ably complex and may be thought of in terms of the interaction of biology, culture, and individual characteristics such as personality and temperament. Factors of Gender Nonconformity Is a girl who plays with boy's toys gender nonconforming? In 1950, the answer would have been yes; by the 1980s it wouldn't have been so clear. Today, some children may be encouraged to play with all types of toys. It depends on the parents and community. Remembering this simple piece of cultural context helps when considering scientific stud- ies of gender variance (Floyd & Bekman, 2007; Herdt, 2004). Many children were once punished for exhibiting gender variant behaviors, and in some conservative com- munities they still are. Why? Parents may fear that their child's actions may become permanent expressions of gender variance in adulthood. They may also recognize that these expressions are clearly frowned upon by their culture. The labels of "tomboy" for a girl and "sissy" or "fag" for a boy are powerful gender stereotypes that are laden with strong feelings of shame, humiliation, fear, anxiety, and sometimes disgust, loathing, or rage. Parents may want to protect their children from such hurt. Also, adults, in their roles as parents and grandparents enforce these standards in children, along with teachers, family, friends, and others. gender nonconforming Individuals who manifest gender behaviors that go beyond or against the norm of their community. gender variance Nonconforming gender behavior that may result from the interaction of biology, culture, and individual characteristics, such as personality and temperament. Some things do change with time, though. What was once believed to be gender nonconforming behavior is now Children are often encouraged by parents to conform to play practices and behaviors that are considered gender appropriate.
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Developing Helping Skills: A Step-by-Step Approach to Competency
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HEALTHY Sexuality 318 Proving Your Masculinity Having sex with a girl definitely influenced the perception that a boy was not a "fag." Some of the "coolest guys" in the high school believe that "if a guy wasn't having sex, he's no one. He's nobody" (Pascoe, 2007, p. 88). In fact, some of the boys felt that having a girlfriend "served as proof of hetero- sexuality" (Pascoe, 2007, p. 89). Some boys chose to remain virgins, but they felt that they had to hide this fact, to preserve their masculinity. Their ulti- mate way of getting each other to stick to a mascu- line gender role norm was to call anyone a "fag" who failed to act masculine. The gay and bisexual boys in the school were picked on and bullied, some- times mercilessly. Also, some heterosexual boys who were not very aggressive were also called "fags" and bullied.

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