they can construct their own social and cultural models in ways not so mediated by a Western episteme and historicity —albeit in an increasingly transnational context. This notion can be extended to the Third World as a whole, for what is at stake is the process by which, in the history of the modern West, non - European areas have been systematically organized into, and transformed according to, European constructs. Representations of Asia, Africa , and Latin America as Third World and underdeveloped are the heirs of an illustrious genealogy of Western conceptions about those parts of the world .3 Timothy Mitchell unveils another important mechanism at work in European representations of other societies. Like Mudimbe, Mitchell's goal is to explore "the peculiar methods of order and truth that characterise the modem West" - (1988, ix) and - their impact on nineteenth - century Egypt. The setting up of the world as a picture, in the model of the world exhibitions of the last century, Mitchell suggests, is at the core of these methods and their political expediency. For the modern (European) subject, this entailed that s/he would experience life as if s/he were set apart from the physical world, as if s/he were a visitor at an exhibition. The observer inevitably "enframed" external reality in order to make sense of it; this enframing took place according to European categories. What emerged was a regime of objectivism in which Europeans were subjected to a double demand: to be detached and objective, and yet to immerse themselves in local life. This experience as participant observer was made possible by a curious trick , that of eliminating from the picture the presence of the European observer (see also Clifford 1988, 145); in more concrete terms, observing the (colonial) 77 27-Feb-18
Planet Debate Page 78 of 227 Development Kritik Latin America Topic world as object "from a position that is invisible and set apart" (Mitchell 1988, 28). The West had come to live "as though the world were divided in this way into two: into a realm of mere representations and a realm of the 'real; into exhibitions and an external reality; into an order of mere models, descriptions or copies, and an order of the original" (32). This regime of order and truth is a quintessential aspect of modernity and has been deepened by economics and development. It is reflected in an objectivist and empiricist stand that dictates that the Third World and its peoples exist "out there," to be known through theories and intervened upon from the outside. The affirmative’s Development discourse of empowered western helpers and powerless western victims is not neutral, but rather strips the third world of its agency, making tt only the object of western knowledge and geopolitical dominance Escobar , Associate professor of anthropology at the university of Massachusetts, 95 (Arturo, “Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World,” P.8-9) Needless to say, Mohanty's critique applies with greater pertinence to mainstream development literature,
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