Chronic excessive exposure is associated with

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Chronic excessive exposure is associated with emotional lability, insomnia, and depression The adrenal cortex releases glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol) in response to ACTH
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The adrenal medulla releases hydrophilic (catacholamine) hormones Cortisol Sex steroid hormones (minor, also produced in the gonads) ACTH ± Catecholamines ² Epinephrine (~80%) Norepinephrine (~20%) Ach Sympathetic preDganglionic neuron Aldosterone Angiotensin II Low blood pressure CRH
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1. Adrenal secretion of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) generally reinforces sympathetic output. This is your ± Fight or flight response. ² 2. Epinephrine also has specific effects by acting via ! 2 adrenergic receptors (which have no affinity for norepinephrine). relaxes smooth muscle of blood vessels supplying skeletal muscles dilation of airways in lungs induces liver to release glucose via glycogenolysis (major) and/or gluconeogenesis (minor) Induces fat cells to release fatty acids (lipolysis) for fuel The adrenal medulla releases catecholamines , primarily in response to sympathetic signals arising in the hypothalamus and brainstem.
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Adrenal gland is a key player in the integrated response to stress
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Hypothalamus Parasympathetic Sympathetic Information about the presence of a stressor Autonomic nervous system “Rest and digest “ “ Flight or fight” Adrenal Medulla Catacholamines
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The autonomic nervous system Effector organ Cholinergic (PNS) responses Adrenergic (SNS) responses Liver Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis Adipose tissue Lipolysis Pancreas Decreased secretion from both acinar and beta9cells Heart Increased heart rate Arterioles Depends on location Lungs Dilates respiratory airways Relaxes bronchial muscle Inhibits bronchial glands Kidney
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