Computers Types Based on Size and Power Personal computer small single user

Computers types based on size and power personal

This preview shows page 39 - 49 out of 926 pages.

Computers Types Based on Size and Power Personal computer: small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. Workstation: powerful, single-user computer like a personal computer, but has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. Minicomputer: multi-user computer capable of supporting up to hundreds of users simultaneously. Mainframe: powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. Supercomputer: extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second. 8/23/2016 39 Lecture 1
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Important Parts of Computer Main Hardware Components 1. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 2. Main Memory 3. Secondary Memory / Storage 4. Input Devices 5. Output Devices 8/23/2016 40 Lecture 1
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Central Processing Unit (CPU) Comprised of: Control Unit Retrieves and decodes program instructions Coordinates activities of all other parts of computer Arithmetic Logic Unit Hardware optimized for high-speed numeric calculation Hardware designed for true/false, yes/no decisions 8/23/2016 41 Lecture 1
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Main Memory It is volatile - erased when program terminates or computer is turned off Also called Random Access Memory (RAM) Organized as follows: bit: smallest piece of memory. Has values 0 (off, false) or 1 (on, true) byte: 8 consecutive bits. Bytes have addresses 8/23/2016 42 Lecture 1
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Secondary Storage Non-volatile - data retained when program is not running or computer is turned off Comes in a variety of media: magnetic: hard drive optical: CD-ROM, DVD Flash drives, connected to the USB port 8/23/2016 43 Lecture 1
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Input Devices Devices that send information to the computer from outside Many devices can provide input: Keyboard, mouse, scanner, digital camera, microphone Disk drives, CD drives, and DVD drives 8/23/2016 44 Lecture 1
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Output Devices Devices that send information from the computer to outside Many devices can provide output: Printer Speakers Monitor screen 8/23/2016 45 Lecture 1
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Software Software is the collective name for programs. Programs contain the instructions which form applications The processor follows the program and carries out the application 8/23/2016 46 Lecture 1
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Software Programs Categories of software: System software: o programs that manage the computer hardware and the programs that run on them. o Examples : operating systems, utility programs, software development tools Application software: o programs that provide services to the user. o Examples : word processing, games, programs to solve specific problems 8/23/2016 47 Lecture 1
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Algorithms Programs express algorithms An algorithm is a precise and systematic method for producing a specified result.
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