formula for single proportion n Z²Pqd 2 Where n sample size Z standard normal

Formula for single proportion n z²pqd 2 where n

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formula for single proportion: n = Z²Pq/d 2 Where: n = sample size Z = standard normal deviate, (a constant set at 1.96 on the basis of using the 95% confidence interval for estimation). P = Estimated proportion of adults who use drugs in Northampton d 2 = margin of error (5 %) q = 1-P n = 1.96² x 0.17 x (1-0.17)/5x5 n = 3.666 n = 4 Therefore, the estimated sample size will be 4 adults aged between 25-35 years. 3.6 Data Collection Techniques This study will utilize both primary and secondary data. To gather primary data, questionnaires will be used. On the other hand, secondary data will be obtained from newspapers, academic journals and published reports. In conducting the interview, a semi- structured questionnaire will be used. The questionnaire will be constructed with the help pf the research supervisor. Data will only be obtained through interviews and from review of literature on the topic. According to Jamshed (2014), questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are some of the best ways to obtain information from study participants. Moreover, when using semi-structured interviews, the respondent has enough time to respond

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Methodology 6 to the questions posed by the interviewer. This is unlike observations which can sometimes be marred with self-bias challenges. 3.7 Validity and Reliability The determination of the validity and reliability of research instruments in qualitative and quantitative research takes different methods. In a qualitative study such as this one, the validity of the research instruments entails the dependability, trustworthiness and utilization of the information to guarantee the reliability/credibility of the research instruments (Cohen et al., 2013). There are different types of validity: internal and external validity. The internal validity of the survey form will be obtained by use of triangulation with quantitative data. In addition, the internal validity will be achieved through the collection of data until no information can be obtained (saturation) (Mason, 2010). Most importantly, this study will stick to the ethical principles that guide scientific research. These principles advocate for honesty and accuracy when reporting study findings. In order to achieve content validity, the research questions will be reviewed by an expert in this field. The expert in this case is my research supervisor alongside other selected experts in the field within the university. 3.7.1 Pretesting In order to test the validity of the research instruments, the question in the questionnaire will be developed based on the findings from previous studies and the literature review. A copy of the questionnaire will be submitted to the research supervisor for him to examine whether the number and types of items in the questionnaire will enable the researcher to find out enough information from the participants. Before the study commences, the questionnaire will be pretested at the University of Northampton because at this university, it is also possible to find people from different ethnicities who can provide enough information on the topic. Moreover, the University of Northampton was chosen as the place
• Winter '15
• Nature, Qualitative Research, researcher

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