open expressions of anger o inflated self-esteem o poor judgement excessive involvement in activities with painful consequences quit their job spend all their money o not fully manic yet FINAL MANIC STAGE o grandiose delusions o reckless and dangerous behaviors o flight of ideas Bipolar I Bipolar II at least one MANIC episode needs to last at least a week may have never experienced depression may have passed the hypomanic phase at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode no full blown manic episode Drug treatment of Bipolar Disorder: Lithium carbonate: mood stabilizing drug o Because of the side effects people do not want to stay on this treatment
Anticonvulsant Medication Cultural Variations: Old order Amish They had a misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder Clinicians were missing the signs of mania they saw psychosis but no mania The clinician did not recognize the abnormal behavior because of the cultural barriers SUICIDE: One of the leading causes of death for ages 15-24 years’ old Increased rates among adolescents 100:1 ration for attempts vs. completion Women are more likely to attempt suicide Men are more likely to die by suicide Suicidal thinking is a symptom of depression Bipolar disorder is most common affiliated with suicide – because of the reckless behavior during mania Depression and the Regulation of Neural Transmission: Genes controlling the regulation of neural impulses in the brain PLAYS an important role in depression Dendrites on the neuron will receive the input on the post-synaptic side Synaptic vesicles are where the neurotransmitters are stored in the axon terminal Each NT can bind to a specific receptor Some models of depression emphasize the dysregulation of neurotransmitters in the brain MONOAMINE NT: a class of neurochemicals that amplify and modulate signals between neurons o CATECHOLAMINE’S Epinephrine Norepinephrine Dopamine o Tricyclic Antidepressants: o Block the process of reuptake of catecholamine’s increasing their availability in the synapse o Class of medications that block the process of reuptake o Bly blocking the brains natural process of reuptake it makes the catecholamine more available o Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors o Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Lexapro o Inhibit reuptake of serotonin
METHODS OF TREATMENT The Behavioral Model: Behavioral Activation Theory
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