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Private Total Central State Co-op. Private Total Central State Co-op. Private Total States Andhra Pradesh 2 0 5 143 150 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 5 145 152 Assam 0 3 1 1 5 0 1 1 0 2 0 4 2 1 7 Bihar 1 0 3 1 5 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 1 6 Chhattisgarh 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Delhi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Goa 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Gujarat 1 0 0 42 43 1 12 0 34 47 2 12 0 76 90 Haryana 0 0 0 69 69 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 71 71 Himachal Pradesh 0 0 0 17 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 17 Jammu and Kashmir 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Jharkhand 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Karnataka 1 1 12 33 47 2 0 0 5 7 3 1 12 38 54 Kerala 4 8 5 14 31 1 0 0 2 3 5 8 5 16 34 Madhya Pradesh 1 0 3 40 44 1 1 0 11 13 2 1 3 51 57 Maharashtra 5 1 83 64 153 9 5 0 23 37 14 6 83 87 190 Manipur 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Orissa 1 2 6 6 15 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 6 6 16 Punjab 2 0 2 87 91 0 0 0 6 6 2 0 2 93 97 Rajasthan 3 0 3 45 51 0 1 0 10 11 3 1 3 55 62 Tamil Nadu 7 1 18 897 923 1 1 0 28 30 8 2 18 925 953 (continued) 60 P. Senthil Kumar et al.
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Table 2 (continued) State-wise, category-wise and management-wise number of cotton/man-made fi bre textile mills (non-SSI) as on 31/03/2011 States/union territories/cities Number of textile mills Spinning Composite Total Central State Co-op. Private Total Central State Co-op. Private Total Central State Co-op. Private Total Uttar Pradesh 2 11 11 32 56 3 0 0 7 10 5 11 11 39 66 Uttaranchal 0 2 0 6 8 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 7 9 West Bengal 3 3 2 15 23 0 0 0 7 7 3 3 2 22 30 Union territories Dadra Nagar Haveli 0 0 0 10 10 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 12 12 Daman & Diu 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Pondicherry 1 2 2 4 9 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 2 4 10 Grandtotal 34 35 156 1532 1757 18 24 1 140 183 52 59 157 1672 1940 Ahmedabad 1 0 0 17 18 1 8 0 22 31 2 8 0 39 49 Mumbai 2 0 0 4 6 5 1 0 8 14 7 1 0 12 20 Coimbatore 5 0 2 316 323 1 1 0 11 13 6 1 2 327 336 Kanpur 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 4 3 0 0 1 4 Source Statistics reported by Confederation of Indian Textile Industry with data obtained from the Annual Report for 2010 2011 from Textile Commissioner s Of fi ce, Mumbai, India Nanochemicals and Ef fl uent Treatment in Textile Industries 61
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component of the textile industry is formed mainly by the decentralized power looms/hosiery and knitting sector. The Indian textile industry is unique when compared to those in other countries because of the intimate relation it shares with the Indian agriculture sector in the way of its dependence for raw materials such as cotton. It also caters to the global demand for a wide range of textile products as required by various market seg- ments, making the Indian textile industry truly versatile. The fundamental function of the textile industry is to convert various fi bres into yarn and further into fabrics and other products. This is followed by the dyeing and fi nishing processes which could be done either during the various phases of pro- duction or separately in the end. Therefore, the textile industry depends on a string of operation s to produce the fi nal product. The state-wise distribution of textile industries (Table 2 ) shows that Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat possess the maximum number of textile mills, accounting for more than 70 % of the total in the country as shown in Fig. 1 . It is during the processing stage of textile fi bres that the operations use several chemicals such as dyes, auxiliary chemicals and sizing materials, to impart desired characters to fabrics. During the entire dyeing and printing process, large volumes of water are used for several processes such as wetting of
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