5 fill in the blank 6 normative 7 critical life

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5. + Fill in the Blank 6. normative 7. critical life events 8. social 9. biological, intellectual, and social environments make up an individual's ecology of development. 10. sensorimotor Short Answer 11. There are three ways that developing people affect their own development. The first is through personality characteristics, or temperament, which affect how others react to the individual. The second is through how people interpret their own experiences and 4
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the events they observe. The third way is through the choices they make for themselves, such as their choice of friends, classes, or hobbies or other activities. 12. The idea that development is either primarily guided by nature (such as heredity) or nurture (such as the family environment) misses the importance of their interaction, such as how hereditary characteristics affect how children respond to the environment, and how the environment influences gene expression. This is the idea of gene by environment (or G x E) interaction. In addition, the field of epigenetics underscores how environmental influences can affect gene expression, which is another example of the continuous mutual influence of nature and nurture. 13. Social learning occurs through the rewards and punishments provided by others that affect us, and how other people are models for our behavior and thinking. 14. The idea that the study of development is “interactive” means that each domain of development (such as language, cognition, social & emotional) influences and is influenced by other domains. A child’s developing social skills, for example, are affected by the development of language with which to communicate to others. Matching 15. b (concrete operational) 16. c (historical and cultural conditions) 17. f (preoperational) 18. d (development) 19. e (multilevel) 20. a (trust vs. mistrust) 5
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