And rationality and contradict physical laws strongly

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and rationality and contradict physical laws strongly suggests that they are not based on science, but rather on a pseudoscience or even on an alternative belief. The presentation of how homeopathy withstands clinical trials will help to clarify this point. Homeopathy is not only controversial in its foundation principles, but is also controversial in its medical research. This idea is presented in articles published in both CAM journals and in non-CAM journals, such as Pharmacology journals (Caulfield & DeBow, 2005; Ernst, 2002; Jonas, Anderson, Crawford, & Lyons, 2001). Jonas et al discuss the fact that the main issue of relevance in the assessment of the quality of homeopathic research is that the diagnostics and therapeutic taxonomies of homeopathy differ from those of conventional medicine and therefore it is difficult to subject homeopathic therapies to in-depth clinical trials (2001). The common conclusion drawn from the data resulting from the clinical trials performed on homeopathic remedies is that the present evidence is inconclusive in proving a greater efficacy than a placebo and that research of a higher quality is needed in order to
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3 Christen, Anna 11575342 come to a conclusion (Caulfield & DeBow, 2005; Ernst, 2002; Jonas et al, 2001). Jonas et al go on to say that the low quantity and seemingly poor quality of homeopathic research is one of the reasons that Western physicians withhold their support (2001). On 12 May, 2015, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services summarised these difficulties on their National Center for Complimentary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) website: Homeopathy is a controversial topic in complementary medicine research. A number of the key concepts of homeopathy are not consistent with fundamental concepts of chemistry and physics. For example, it is not possible to explain in scientific terms how a remedy containing little or no active ingredient can have any effect. This, in turn, creates major challenges to rigorous clinical investigation of homeopathic remedies. For example, one cannot confirm that an extremely dilute remedy contains what is listed on the label, or develop objective measures that show effects of extremely dilute remedies in the human body. Another research challenge is that homeopathic treatments are highly individualized, and there is no uniform prescribing standard for homeopathic practitioners. There are hundreds of different homeopathic remedies, which can be prescribed in a variety of different dilutions for thousands of symptoms. With these difficulties in mind, what is to be said about patient safety and beneficial outcomes for those who choose to use homeopathy? According to the clinical trials, a few of the subjects have benefitted, but not remotely enough to prove general efficacy (Caulfield & DeBow, 2005; Ernst, 2002; Jonas et al, 2001). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in the same post, strongly advised that homeopathy not be used as replacement
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  • Anna Christen

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