Soil horizons n o top layer of topsoil organic matter

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Soil Horizons n O= top layer of topsoil, organic matter still somewhat intact n A= topsoil-dark, rich in organic and humus n B= high in sand, silt, iron, humus, lacks clay n C= parent material n R= bedrock, underlying rock
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Enhancing/Degrading soil n Helps: n Organic material additions n Plant growth n Fibrous root systems of plants n Cool, humid climate n H a r m s : n O v e r h a r
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Important topics, cont. n Salt marsh/estuary n Structure/function n Zonation/indicator species n Tides n Inundation n Productivity
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Salt Marsh… n Endless supply of water, nutrients, sunlight n Salt-tolerant grasses dominate – WHAT KIND and WHERE?? n serve as pollution filters and wind protection n Flooding supplies marsh with nutrients and wastes washed out
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Major Physical Factors n Salinity (salt water) n Inundation: covered by tides (daily/weekly/monthly) n Topography: influences amount of inundation and soil type n THESE FACTORS INFLUENCE VEGETATION ZONATION
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Important topics, cont n Aquatic ecosystems n Eutrophication n Types of water bodies (freshwater and marine) n Types of organisms (plankton, nekton, benthos)
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Soil Horizons n O top layer of topsoil organic matter still...

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