Old regionalism is linked to regional integration attempts between the 1950s

Old regionalism is linked to regional integration

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various types of regionalisation (Hettne and Soderbaum 1998, pp3-4; 2000, p3). Old regionalism is linked to regional integration attempts between the 1950s and 1960s which were inward oriented; explicit about the objectives to be achieved; clear about the programmes and had restricted membership (Olivier 2010, pp18-19; Gilpin 2001, p341). New regionalism is inclusive, outward-looking and associated with regional 29
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integration arrangements from the 1990s (Olivier 2010, pp 18-19; Gibb 2009, p708). New regionalism establishes the reality of growing interdependence of nation states in the international political system. It makes it difficult to establish a general definition or theoretical explanation of regionalism. To this extent, there is a growing recognition of the need to develop a new regional approach towards a multi-dimensional, broadly focused perspective on regionalism (Olivier 2010, p21). In the last decade, regional cooperation and integration arrangements have been established in various parts of the world to an extent which has ensured that almost all countries in the developed and developing worlds are members of particular regional institutions. Moreover, countries in the developing world have also shown interest in cooperation. Cooperative arrangements also exist between developed and developing countries. There has been increasing interest in cooperating to accomplish regional cooperation projects in various sectors; promoting research activities; and creating regional bodies that regulate diverse aspects of economic policy making (Lamberte 2004, p4). Thus, regional integration agreements have increasingly been established as a strategy to respond to the challenges and demands of a fast globalising world marked with technological transformations (see, Delvin and Estevadeordal 2002, p2; Olu-Adeyemi and Ayodele 2007, p214). It is important to note, however, that regional integration within the framework of countries in the less developed world is particularly complex and different from what is obtainable in the developed world because of the socio-economic and political dynamics which impact on the process (Adetula 2004, p5). Regional integration arrangements in the African continent are established on certain philosophical premises which developed generally from the practice of countries in the Western industrialised societies and each of the different types of integration scheme has its distinct regularities, processes and method of operation (Adetula 2004, p5). The Challenge of Regional Economic Integration in Africa: Theory and Reality 9 Regional economic integration in Africa: Theoretical perspectives A review of literature shows that issues related to regional integration in Africa cannot be analysed meaningfully using one particular theoretical framework. This is a result of the complexities associated with regionalism in Africa and the changing perspectives of the concept as scholars attempt to grapple with the realities and challenges of globalisation, regionalisation and liberalisation. Africa has experimented with different
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