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captures the energetic forces that drive employees’ work effort. Trust, justice, and ethicsreflect the degree to which employees feel that their company does business with fairness, honesty, and integrity. Learning and decision makingdeals with how employees gain job knowledge and how they use that knowledge to make accurate judgements on the job.INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS:Is important to understand which factors improve the individual mechanisms. Personality and cultural valuesreflect the various traits and tendencies that describe how people act, with commonly studies traits including extraversion, conscientiousness, and collectivism. Personality and cultural values affect the way people behaveat work, the kinds of tasks they’re interested in, and how they react to events that happen on the job. Ability describes the cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, etc.), emotional skills (other
awareness, emotion regulation, etc.) and physical abilities (strength endurance, etc.) that employees bring to a job. Ability influences the kind of tasks an employee is good at (and not so good at).GROUP MECHANISMS: Employees don’t work alone; they typically work on one or more work teams led by some formal (or sometimes informal) leader. Like the individual characteristics, these group mechanisms shape satisfaction, stress, motivation, trust, and learning.Team characteristics and diversitydescribes how teams are formed, staffed, and composed, and how team members come to rely on one another as they do their work. Team processes and communication—how teams behave, including their coordination, conflict, and cohesion. Leaderpower and negotiationsummarize how individuals attain authority over others. How leaders behave in their leadership roles is described as leader styles and behaviorsthat capture the specific actions that leaders take to influence others at work. ORGANIZATIONAL MECHANISMS:The teams described in the prior section are grouped into larger organizations that themselves affect satisfaction, stress, motivation, and so forth. Every company has an organizational structurethat dictates how the units within the firm link to(And communicate with) other units. Sometimes structures are centralized around a decision-making authority, whereas other times, structures are decentralized, affording each unit some autonomy. Every company also has an organizational culturethat captures “the way things are” in the organization—shared knowledge about the values and beliefs that shape employee attitudes and behaviors. Does Organizational Behavior Matter?Effective OB can help keep a product good over the long term. The effective management of OB can help make a bad product get better, incrementally, over the long term. (Hyundai example)