ESBJORN METAWORRY ACCEPTED COPY.doc

The scared r incorporates obsessive compulsive

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compulsive disorder than it is of GAD (Wells, 2000). The SCARED-R incorporates obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms to a greater extent than the PSWQ-C scale, which may in part explain this difference in results. 11 11 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254
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METACOGNITIONS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Study 2 The second study is one of few that explore metacognitions in children as young as seven years, and it is the first to do so using the MCQ-C 30 . Furthermore, it expands the findings from Study 1 by including children with clinical levels of anxiety. The MCM of GAD for children is tested by comparing a group of children with GAD, a group of children with anxiety disorders other than GAD (Oth.AD) and a non-clinical control group of children. Based on theory, we expect to find that children with GAD have more negative beliefs about worry than both non-clinical children, and children with other anxiety disorders. Furthermore, as all metacognitive processes play a role in the development and maintenance of emotional disorders in adults, we expected that anxious (Oth.AD) children should endorse more metacognitive beliefs than non-anxious children. Previous findings offer conflicting results in respect to differences in metacognitive processes in clinically anxious and non-anxious youth (Bacow et al., 2010; Cartwright-Hatton et al., 2004). Additionally, studies including childhood and adolescent samples have not, as the theory suggests, been able to differentiate GAD samples from samples with other anxiety disorders (Bacow, et al., 2010; Ellis & Hudson, 2011). In accordance with the metacognitive theory of adult GAD, we hypothesized that (a) there would be no significant differences between levels of positive meta-beliefs between the clinical and non-clinical children, and (b) that the GAD group would endorse significantly more negative metacognitive beliefs than the Oth.AD group and the non-clinical group. Methods Participants. Children with anxiety disorders aged 7-13 years, who were recruited for a randomized treatment project were also enrolled in the present project. Control children without disorders were 12 12 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278
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METACOGNITIONS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS selected to resemble the clinical sample. The project enrolled 99 families between February 18 th , 2009 and July 20 th , 2012. Six families were excluded from the main data analysis because of missing data on the MCQ-C 30 . Participants in the final data set (N = 93) ranged in age from 7 to 12 years, and had a mean age of 9 years and 9.36 months ( SD = 1 year and 7.68 months), and 46 (49.5%) of the participants were girls. Children as young as seven years old were sampled because at this age many children are capable of the metacognition required by the MCM. Adolescents above age 13 years were not included as the sample came from a larger clinical trial focused on children. All participants had at least one native Danish-speaking parent. School psychologists, physicians, or parents referred clinical participants to the study.
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