●in 1979, the Soviet Union launched an armed intervention into Afghanistan●in response, there was fierce resistance from inside Afghanistan●Muslim groups calling themselves “mujahideen,” an Arabic word meaning “those who struggle,”organized against Soviet troops●inside Afghanistan, mujahideen eventually organized into two large umbrella groups: the NorthernAlliance and the Taliban○when the Soviet Union left Afghanistan a decade later, a civil war broke out between these twogroups○the Taliban won and established an Islamic revivalist government in 1996●during the decade of fighting, many other individuals and groups also traveled to Afghanistan fromother Muslim areas of the world including various Middle Eastern locales, from Pakistan, and fromvarious Central Asian areas, most of which were still encompassed by the government of the SovietUnion
●these individuals also became known as mujahideen because they, too, believed that they were part ofa large and growing struggle on a global scale, to fight those who acted against Islam○one individual who ended up in Afghanistan during this period was the son of a wealthybusinessman from Saudi Arabia, Osama Bin Laden, who fought and organized extensively onthe side of the mujahideen against the Soviet Union●the United States, in the context of the Cold War environment, funneled huge sums of money tosupport any and all mujahideen fighters against the Soviet Union○one estimate is that CIA, with the assistance of Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, was responsible forproviding cash and arms worth a total of $2.1 billion to mujahideen groups from 1980 through1989○afterwards, through the mid1990s, the U.S. and Saudi Arabia each continued to provide largesums○U.S. president Ronald Reagan referred to the mujahideen as “freedom fighters...defendingprinciples of independence and freedom that form the basis of global security and stability”●Bin Laden also used huge sums from his personal fortune to fund the mujahideen effort in Afghanistan●by the final phase of the antiSoviet resistance in Afghanistan, the wealthy Saudi Arabian, Osama BinLaden, had built a large following among those who had called themselves mujahideen in the context ofthe Afghan war○he had also honed his skills at gathering large supplies of weapons and at training mujahideento be guerilla fighters, grooming them for a global war against any and all who might stand in theway of Islamic people anywhere and their rights of “self determination”●in 1988, BIn Laden formed an organization which he called Al Qaeda, “the base,” in order to expand theantiSoviet resistance effort into a worldwide Islamic revivalist movement●among other issues at stake from Bin Laden’s point of view, especially as the power of the Soviet Unionwas waning, was American military intervention in the middle East and also the ongoing support of theU.S. government for the state of Israel●
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 63 pages?