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Although the data show that even highly emotional events areprone to memory distortion, some basic uncertainties remain aboutthe emotion-false memory relation that must be resolved beforetheory and research can proceed to more subtle questions. Threeelementary ones are these. First, does false memory vary in auniform way as a function of the emotional concomitants ofexperience; that is, is there a simpledirectionalrelation such thatdistortion consistently increases or decreases as emotion varies?Second, does the manner in which false memory reacts to emo-tional variation depend upon thequalityof that variation—inparticular, whether its valence is positive or negative or howarousing it is? Third, does the manner in which false memoryreacts to emotional variation depend uponwherethat variation islocalized—in particular, whether it is inherent in the content ofevents or whether it is a feature of the context in which they areexperienced? We consider findings on these questions in thisreview, and as an advance organizer, it will turn out that theanswer to the last two questions is yes while the answer to the firstis no. Paradoxically, we shall see that whether emotion distortsmemory or inoculates memory against distortion depends uponwhether it is localized in the content or the context of experience.This content-context paradox is one of the main themes of thepresent review.Structure of the Review and Method ofLiterature SearchThe article begins with a brief overview of method and theory infalse memory research—of current accounts of factors that influ-ence false memory, including manipulations and measures that areused to test those accounts. We then review findings from falsememory experiments in which emotional content and mood weremanipulated, with attention to methodological differences that mayexplain why a single, clear pattern for emotional influences has notyet emerged. We conclude with a working explanation that an-swers the direction, quality, and location questions and proposesnear-term targets for research on emotion and false memory.Our search method began with Web of Science, searching forentries containing the terms “emotion” and “false memory.” Wethen followed up using “affect,” “mood,” “valence,” or “arousal,”as the first term and “false memory” or “misinformation” as thesecond. We then performed the same searches with the GoogleScholar and PSYCinfo databases. Using the resulting articles, weconducted two snowball searches: First, we consulted the referencelists of the articles and searched for citations of referenced articlesin Web of Science, and second, we did likewise with the referencelists of recent unpublished and in press articles. The latter articleswere secured by searching conference proceedings and by contact-ing colleagues. Ultimately, we located 46 peer-reviewed articlesreporting research that met three inclusion criteria: (a) The depen-