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Definition:Little Albert(demonstrated that fears were learnedand not the result of some unconsciousconflict)Term:Behavior MODIFICATION strategiesare based heavily onINSTRUMENTAL conditioning (i.e.,B. F. Skinner with the 'i'), whilebehavior THERAPY emphasizesCLASSICAL conditioning (Pavlov).Definition:...Term:Neal MillerDefinition:demonstrated that animals could beconditioned to control autonomicprocesses. (heart rate, blood pressure)Term:Law of effect (aka 'trial and error')Definition:Thorndike's suggestion that satisfyingassociations related to a givenbehavior will cause it to be 'stampedin' while those associated withannoying consequences will be'stamped out'.
Term:Analytic psychology is sometimesreferred to asDefinition:depth psychologyTerm:John B Watson is to cause as MaryCover Jones is toDefinition:cure(demonstrated learning could serve astreatment for a phobic reaction)Term:Neurolinguistic programming (NLP)Definition:brainchild of linguistics professorJohn Grinder and mathematician JohnBander.Term:Pioneers in the Behaviorist movementDefinition:Pavlov, Jones, WatsonTerm:Counseling paradigmDefinition:a treatment model(paradigm = model)
Term:Active therapy (aka 'active-directive'therapy)Definition:therapy to delineate the directiveparadigm.Term:Concreteness (aka 'specificity')Definition:this principle is used to alleviatevague language.Term:InterpretationDefinition:highly valued in analytic andpsychodynamic modalities(takes place when counselor uncoversa deeper meaning regarding a client'ssituation)Term:A directiveDefinition:In counseling, merely a suggestionTerm:Continuous schedule of reinforcementDefinition:reinforcing every behavior(not necessarily the most practical oreffective)
Term:Intermittent schedule of reinforcementDefinition:Not every desirable behavior isreinforced(sometimes called 'thinning')Term:The counselor who is _____ is realand authentic.Definition:congruentTerm:Robert CarkhuffDefinition:known for his 5 point scale measuringempathy, genuineness, concreteness,and respect.Term:Empathy is the ability to experiencethe client's subjective world.Definition:Sympathy is compassion.Term:When something is added following anoperant, it is known as a ____ ______,and when taken away, it is called a______ ______.Definition:positive reinforcer, negative reinforcer
Term:OperantDefinition:any behavior which is not elicited byan obvious stimulant.Term:RespondentDefinition:consequence of a known stimulus.(dog salivating)Term:Higher order conditioning.Definition:when a new stimulus is paired with theconditioned (learned) stimulus and thenew stimulus takes on the power of theconditioned (learned) stimulus.Term:Premack principleDefinition:'an efficient reinforcer is what theclient himself likes to do.'Term:Reinforcement scheduleDefinition:gives guidelines for reinforcement.
Term:Two basic classes of intermittentreinforcement schedulesDefinition:Ratio - based on # of responses('variable' often used with this)Interval - based on time elapsed('fixed' often used with this)Term: